Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

An Overview of Multi-Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria - From Selected Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects - A Review

Version 1 : Received: 1 August 2018 / Approved: 2 August 2018 / Online: 2 August 2018 (06:29:07 CEST)

How to cite: Fodor, A.; Abate, B.A.; Deák, P.; Fodor, L.; Klein, M.G.; Makrai, L.; Muvevi, J.; Vozik, D. An Overview of Multi-Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria - From Selected Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects - A Review. Preprints 2018, 2018080036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0036.v1). Fodor, A.; Abate, B.A.; Deák, P.; Fodor, L.; Klein, M.G.; Makrai, L.; Muvevi, J.; Vozik, D. An Overview of Multi-Antibiotic Resistance in Pathogenic Bacteria - From Selected Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects - A Review. Preprints 2018, 2018080036 (doi: 10.20944/preprints201808.0036.v1).

Abstract

The challenge posed by multi-drug resistance (MDR) of pathogenic organisms, spectacularly manifested in the 6 “ESKAPE” bacterium (two Gram-positive, four Gram-negative) species, should invoke new comprehensive strategies, and needs cooperation of scientists with medical, veterinary and natural science background. This review is aimed at informing newcomers, coming from the field of biology and genetics, about problems related to rapidly emerging, new multi-drug resistant, pathogenic, bacteria. Unlike persistence, the antibiotic resistance is inherited. A functioning “resistance gene” makes a susceptible organism resistant to a given antibiotic, encoding for polypeptides capable of acting either as decomposing enzymes, or acting as trans-membrane pumps, or membrane structure components capable of modifying the permeability implementing a «by pass» mechanism enabling the antibiotic molecule to reach its cellular target(s). A functioning “sensitivity gene” encode for a polypeptide, capable (directly or indirectly) of transferring toxic molecules into target cells, or of metabolizing non-transferable to transferable, or non-toxic molecules to toxic derivatives. A gene of a normal function could act as a “sensitivity” gene in the presence of antibiotics of chemical structures similar to the natural substrate of the gene product, (enzyme or binding/ trans-membrane protein). The Agrocin 84 story is a good example. Multi-drug resistance is a phenotypic consequence of the sequential accumulation of mutations, and/or up-take of plasmids or genomic islands carrying resistance genes from the environment via horizontal gene transfer, mediated by conjugative plasmid or bacteriophage carrying mobile genetic elements. Both multi-drug resistance and collateral sensitivity are evolutionary products. Some revealed evolutionary process and their Lamarckian and Darwinian interpretations are discussed. Toolkits of comparative full-genome sequencing, genomics, experimental evolution and population genetics may provide perspectives for overcoming the invincibility of multi-drug panresistance. The status of some recently emerging pathogenic bacterium species with zoonic features and of veterinary background is also discussed.

Subject Areas

ESKAPE-bacteria; persistence; resistance; Intrinsic/Acquired/ Multidrug (MDR) and Pan – Resistance; genetic background; experimental evolution; collateral sensitivity; agrocin

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