Preprint Review Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Risk Stratification on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma from Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

Version 1 : Received: 25 July 2018 / Approved: 25 July 2018 / Online: 25 July 2018 (11:41:52 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kimura, N.; Takekoshi, K.; Naruse, M. Risk Stratification on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma from Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 242. Kimura, N.; Takekoshi, K.; Naruse, M. Risk Stratification on Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma from Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 242.

Journal reference: J. Clin. Med. 2018, 7, 242
DOI: 10.3390/jcm7090242

Abstract

Pheochromocytoma and sympathetic paraganglioma (PPGL) are rare neuroendocrine tumors characterized by catecholamine production in the adrenal medulla and extra-adrenal paraganglia. PPGL with metastasis was termed malignant PPGL. However, the distinction between “benign” and “malignant” PPGLs has been debated. Currently, all PPGLs are believed to have some metastatic potential and are assigned malignant tumors (ICD-O/3) by the WHO Classification of Endocrine Organs (2017, 4th edition). Therefore, the previous categories benign and malignant PPGL have been eliminated in favor of a risk stratification approach. The Grading of Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) is a tool for risk stratification for predicting metastasis and the prognosis of patients. At least 30% of PPGLs are hereditary, with 20 genes identified and genotype-phenotype correlations clarified. Of these, VHL, RET, and NF1 have been well investigated and are the primary cause of bilateral PCC. In addition, succinate dehydrogenase gene subunits SDHB and SDHD are strongly correlated with extra-adrenal location, younger age, multiple tumors, metastasis, and poor prognosis. Disease stratification by catecholamine phenotype and molecular profiling correlates with histological grading by GAPP. PPGLs should be understood comprehensively based on clinical, biochemical, molecular, and pathological data for patient care. A flow chart for pathological diagnosis is included.

Subject Areas

pheochromocytoma; paraganglioma; GAPP; metastasis; prognosis; catecholamine; gene mutation; immunohistochemistry; pathology; diagnosis

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