Warman, J.M.; de Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.H.; Denkova, A.G.; Yao, T. A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields. Polymers2018, 10, 685.
Warman, J.M.; de Haas, M.P.; Luthjens, L.H.; Denkova, A.G.; Yao, T. A Radio-Fluorogenic Polymer-Gel Makes Fixed Fluorescent Images of Complex Radiation Fields. Polymers 2018, 10, 685.
Abstract: We review the development and application of an organic polymer-gel capable of producing fixed, three-dimensional fluorescent images of complex radiation fields. The gel consists for more than 99% of γ-ray-polymerized (~15% conversion) tertiary-butyl acrylate (TBA) containing ~100 ppm of a fluorogenic compound, e.g. maleimido-pyrene (MPy). The radio-fluorogenic effect depends on copolymerization of the MPy into growing chains of TBA on radiation-induced polymerization. This converts the maleimido residue, which quenches the pyrene fluorescence, into a succinimido moeity (SPy), which doesn't. The intensity of the fluorescence is proportional to the yield of free-radicals formed and hence to the local dose deposited. Because the SPy moieties are built into the cross-linked polymer matrix the image is fixed. The method of preparing the gel and imaging the radiation-induced fluorescence are presented and discussed. The effect is illustrated with fluorescent images of the energy deposited in the gel by beams of X-rays, electrons and protons as well as a radioactive isotope.
Keywords: 3D dose imaging; radio-fluorogenic gel; polymer gel dosimetry; radio-fluorogenic co-polymerization; tertiary-butyl acrylate gel; proton beam imaging
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