Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Insights into Metal Oxide and Zero-Valent Metal Nanocrystal Formation on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surfaces during Sol-gel Hybridization

Version 1 : Received: 12 May 2018 / Approved: 14 May 2018 / Online: 14 May 2018 (11:51:21 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Das, D.; Sabaraya, I.V.; Sabo-Attwood, T.; Saleh, N.B. Insights into Metal Oxide and Zero-Valent Metal Nanocrystal Formation on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surfaces during Sol-Gel Process. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 403. Das, D.; Sabaraya, I.V.; Sabo-Attwood, T.; Saleh, N.B. Insights into Metal Oxide and Zero-Valent Metal Nanocrystal Formation on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Surfaces during Sol-Gel Process. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 403.

Journal reference: Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 403
DOI: 10.3390/nano8060403

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes are hybridized with metal crystals to impart multifunctionality into the nanohybrids (NHs). Simple but effective synthesis techniques are desired to form both zero-valent and oxides of different metal species on carbon nanotube surfaces. Sol-gel technique brings in significant advantages and is a viable technique for such synthesis. This study probes the efficacy of sol-gel process and aims to identify underlying mechanisms of crystal formation. Standard electron potential (SEP) is used as a guiding parameter to choose the metal species; i.e., highly negative SEP (e.g., Zn) with oxide crystal tendency, highly positive SEP (e.g., Ag) with zero-valent crystal-tendency, and intermediate range SEP (e.g., Cu) to probe the oxidation tendency in crystal formation are chosen. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to evaluate the synthesized NHs. Results indicate that SEP can be a reliable guide for the resulting crystalline phase of a certain metal species, particularly when the magnitude of this parameter is relatively high. However, for intermediate range SEP-metals, mix phase crystals can be expected. For example, Cu will form Cu2O and zero-valent Cu crystals, unless the synthesis is performed in a reducing environment.

Subject Areas

nanohybrid; synthesis; standard electron potential; crystal phase; reducing agents

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