Knudsen, C.; Laustsen, A.H. Recent Advances in Next Generation Snakebite Antivenoms. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis.2018, 3, 42.
Knudsen, C.; Laustsen, A.H. Recent Advances in Next Generation Snakebite Antivenoms. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 42.
With the inclusion of snakebite envenoming on the World Health Organisation’s list of Neglected Tropical Diseases, an incentive has been established to promote research and development effort in novel snakebite antivenom therapies. Different technological approaches are being pursued by different research groups, including the use of small molecule inhibitors against enzymatic toxins, as well as peptide and oligonucleotide-based aptamers and antibody-based biotherapeutics against both enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins. In this article, the most recent advances in these fields are presented, and the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of using different toxin-neutralizing molecules are reviewed. Particular focus within small molecules is directed towards the inhibitors, varespladib, batimastat, and marimastat, while in the field of antibody-based therapies, novel recombinant polyclonal plantivenom technology is discussed.
Antivenom; snakebite; small molecule toxin inhibitors; oligonucleotides; antibodies; phage display; next generation antivenom; recombinant antivenom
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