Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

Version 1 : Received: 14 January 2018 / Approved: 17 January 2018 / Online: 17 January 2018 (12:09:05 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Pontius, F. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use. Water 2018, 10, 324. Pontius, F. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use. Water 2018, 10, 324.

Journal reference: Water 2018, 10, 324
DOI: 10.3390/w10030324

Abstract

As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt), total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L) and color (1440 CU). Proposals to desalinate the Salton Sea are expected to lower the equilibrium salinity from 45 ppt to 3 ppt yielding significant benefits for ecological restoration. High salinity eutrophic waters such as the Salton Sea are difficult to treat yet more desirable sources of drinking water are not always available. Jar tests were performed to evaluate the treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use by coagulation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride and alum. Coagulation-sedimentation proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent) at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 m and 0.1 m microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using Sea Water Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) achieved rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

Subject Areas

Coagulation; Desalination; Salton Sea; Sea Water Reverse Osmosis; Treatability

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