Preprint Article Version 1 This version is not peer-reviewed

Pollution Assessment and Health Risk Implication of Human Exposure to Heavy Metals in Road Dusts from Different Functional Areas in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Version 1 : Received: 16 November 2017 / Approved: 23 November 2017 / Online: 23 November 2017 (10:20:50 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Shabbaj, I.I.; Alghamdi, M.A.; Shamy, M.; Hassan, S.K.; Alsharif, M.M.; Khoder, M.I. Risk Assessment and Implication of Human Exposure to Road Dust Heavy Metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 36. Shabbaj, I.I.; Alghamdi, M.A.; Shamy, M.; Hassan, S.K.; Alsharif, M.M.; Khoder, M.I. Risk Assessment and Implication of Human Exposure to Road Dust Heavy Metals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 36.

Journal reference: Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 36
DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15010036

Abstract

Data dealing with the assessment of heavy metal pollution in road dusts in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia and its implication to human health risk of human exposure to heavy metals, are scarce. Road dusts were collected from five different functional areas (traffic areas TA, parking areas PA, residential areas RA, mixed residential commercial areas MCRA and suburban areas SA) in Jeddah and one in rural area (RUA) in Hada Al Sham. We aimed to measure the pollution levels of heavy metals and estimate their health risk of human exposure applying risk assessment models described by USEPA. Using geo-accumulation index (Igeo), the pollution level of heavy metals in urban road dusts was in the following order Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cr > V > Mn > Co > Fe. Urban road dust was found to be moderately to heavily contaminated with As, Pb and Zn, and heavily to extremely contaminated with Cd. Calculation of enrichment factor (EF) revealed that heavy metals in TA had the highest values compared to that of the other functional areas. Cd, As, Pb, Zn and Cu were severely enriched, while Mn, V, Co, Ni and Cr were moderately enriched. Fe was consider as a natural element and consequently excluded. The concentrations of heavy metals in road dusts of functional areas were in the following order: TA > PA > MCRA > SA > RA > RUA. The study revealed that both children and adults in all studied areas having health quotient (HQ) < 1 are at negligible non-carcinogenic risk. The only exception was for children exposed to As in TA. They had an ingestion health quotient (HQing) 1.18 and a health index (HI) 1.19. The most prominent exposure route was ingestion. The cancer risk for children and adults from exposure to Pb, Cd, Co, Ni, and Cr was found to be negligible (< 1 x 10-6).

Subject Areas

Urban road dust, Functional areas, Heavy metals, Pollution assessment, Health risk assessment, Jeddah

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