Working Paper Article Version 3 This version is not peer-reviewed

Geometric Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation

Version 1 : Received: 2 November 2017 / Approved: 3 November 2017 / Online: 3 November 2017 (02:17:11 CET)
Version 2 : Received: 3 November 2019 / Approved: 4 November 2019 / Online: 4 November 2019 (04:04:58 CET)
Version 3 : Received: 8 August 2020 / Approved: 9 August 2020 / Online: 9 August 2020 (22:12:13 CEST)
Version 4 : Received: 24 July 2021 / Approved: 26 July 2021 / Online: 26 July 2021 (12:04:41 CEST)
Version 5 : Received: 5 December 2021 / Approved: 6 December 2021 / Online: 6 December 2021 (11:52:36 CET)
Version 6 : Received: 4 September 2022 / Approved: 6 September 2022 / Online: 6 September 2022 (04:24:39 CEST)
Version 7 : Received: 14 May 2023 / Approved: 15 May 2023 / Online: 15 May 2023 (14:37:07 CEST)
Version 8 : Received: 9 January 2024 / Approved: 11 January 2024 / Online: 12 January 2024 (09:54:40 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Beach, R.J. The Geometrization of Maxwell’s Equations and the Emergence of Gravity and Antimatter. Annals of Physics 2024, 169661, doi:10.1016/j.aop.2024.169661. Beach, R.J. The Geometrization of Maxwell’s Equations and the Emergence of Gravity and Antimatter. Annals of Physics 2024, 169661, doi:10.1016/j.aop.2024.169661.


A recently proposed classical field theory comprised of four field equations that geometrically couple the Maxwell tensor to the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor in a fundamentally new way is reviewed and extended. The new theory’s field equations show little resemblance to the field equations of classical physics, but both Maxwell’s equations of electromagnetism and Einstein’s equation of General Relativity augmented by a term that can mimic the properties of dark matter and dark energy are shown to be a consequence. Emphasized is the emergence of gravity and the unification brought to electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena as well as the consistency of solutions of the new theory with those of the classical Maxwell and Einstein field equations. Unique to the four field equations reviewed here and based on specific solutions to them are: the emergence of antimatter and its behavior in gravitational fields, the emergence of dark matter and dark energy mimicking terms in the context of General Relativity, an underlying relationship between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation, the impossibility of negative mass solutions that would generate repulsive gravitational fields or antigravity, and a method for quantizing the charge and mass of particle-like solutions.


Maxwell’s equations; General Relativity; unification of electromagnetism and gravitation; dark matter; dark energy


Physical Sciences, Space Science

Comments (1)

Comment 1
Received: 9 August 2020
Commenter: Raymond Beach
Commenter's Conflict of Interests: Author
Comment: Updated section 2.3
Updated section 2.4
Extended the solution in section 4.1
Modified Appendix I
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