Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Watching the Smoke Rise Up: Thermal Efficiency, Pollutant Emissions and Global Warming Impact of Three Biomass Cookstoves in Ghana

Version 1 : Received: 26 April 2017 / Approved: 26 April 2017 / Online: 26 April 2017 (06:00:53 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Obeng, G.Y.; Mensah, E.; Ashiagbor, G.; Boahen, O.; Sweeney, D.J. Watching the Smoke Rise Up: Thermal Efficiency, Pollutant Emissions and Global Warming Impact of Three Biomass Cookstoves in Ghana. Energies 2017, 10, 641. Obeng, G.Y.; Mensah, E.; Ashiagbor, G.; Boahen, O.; Sweeney, D.J. Watching the Smoke Rise Up: Thermal Efficiency, Pollutant Emissions and Global Warming Impact of Three Biomass Cookstoves in Ghana. Energies 2017, 10, 641.

Journal reference: Energies 2017, 10, 641
DOI: 10.3390/en10050641

Abstract

In Ghana, about 73% of households rely on solid fuels for cooking. Over 13,000 annual deaths are attributed to exposure to indoor air pollution from inefficient combustion. In this study, assessment of thermal efficiency, emissions and total global warming impact of three cookstoves commonly used in Ghana was completed using IWA water boiling test (WBT) protocol. Statistical averages of three replicate tests for each cookstove were computed. Thermal efficiency results were: wood-burning cookstove 12.2% (Tier 0), traditional charcoal cookstove 23.3% (Tier 1-2) and improved charcoal cookstove 30% (Tier 2-3). The wood-burning cookstove emitted more CO, CO2 and PM2.5 than charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and improved cookstove. Emission factor for PM2.5 and emission rate for the wood-burning cookstove (Tier 0) were over four times higher than the traditional charcoal cookstove (Tier 3) and improved cookstove (Tier 2). On the basis of WBT, annual global warming impact potential for emissions are estimated at 4 tonnes of CO2e for the wood-burning cookstove, 1.5 tonnes of CO2e for charcoal cookstove (coalpot) and 1 tonne of CO2e for improved cookstove. We conclude that there is the need for awareness, policy and incentives to enable end-users switch to improved cookstoves for increased efficiency, reduced emissions/global warming impact.

Subject Areas

cookstove; emissions; emission factor; efficiency; global warming impact; Ghana

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