Peng, C.; Ma, Y.; Ding, Y.; He, X.; Zhang, P.; Lan, T.; Wang, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. Influence of Speciation of Thorium on Toxic Effects to Green Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci.2017, 18, 795.
Peng, C.; Ma, Y.; Ding, Y.; He, X.; Zhang, P.; Lan, T.; Wang, D.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, Z. Influence of Speciation of Thorium on Toxic Effects to Green Algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18, 795.
Thorium (Th) is a natural radioactive element present in the environment and has a potential to be used as a nuclear fuel. Relatively little is known about the influence and toxicity of Th in the environment. In the present study, the toxicity of Th to the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. Pyrenoidosa) was evaluated by algal growth inhibition, biochemical assays and morphologic observations. In the cultural medium (OECD TG 201), Th(NO3)4 was transformed to amorphous precipitation of Th(OH)4 due to hydrolysis. Th was toxic to C. Pyrenoidosa, with a 96 h half maximum effective concentration (EC50) of 10.4 μM. Scanning electron microscopy shows that Th-containing aggregates were attached onto the surface of the algal cells, and transmission electron microscopy indicates the internalization of nano-sized Th precipitates and ultrastructural alterations of the algal cells. The heteroagglomeration between Th(OH)4 precipitation and alga cells and enhanced oxidative stress might play important roles in the toxicity of Th. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the toxicity of Th to algae with its chemical species in the exposure medium. This finding provides useful information on understanding the fate and toxicity of Th in the aquatic environment.
Thorium; speciation; toxicity; green algae; Chlorella pyrenoidosa
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