Preprint Article Version 1 This version not peer reviewed

Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged Water Production in Ghana: Implications for Groundwater Management and Environmental Impacts

Version 1 : Received: 9 December 2016 / Approved: 10 December 2016 / Online: 10 December 2016 (08:41:51 CET)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Dzodzomenyo, M.; Dotse‐Gborgbortsi, W.; Lapworth, D.; Wardrop, N.; Wright, J. Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged  Water Production in Ghana: Implications for   Piped Supplies, Groundwater Management   and Product Transportation. Water 2017, 9, 142. Dzodzomenyo, M.; Dotse‐Gborgbortsi, W.; Lapworth, D.; Wardrop, N.; Wright, J. Geographic Distribution of Registered Packaged  Water Production in Ghana: Implications for   Piped Supplies, Groundwater Management   and Product Transportation. Water 2017, 9, 142.

Journal reference: Water 2017, 9, 142
DOI: 10.3390/w9020142

Abstract

Packaged water consumption has grown rapidly in urban areas of many low and middle income countries, but particularly in Ghana. However, the sources of water used by this growing packaged water industry and its implications for water resource management and transport-related environmental impacts have not been described. This study aimed to assess the spatial distribution of regulated packaged water production in Ghana, both in relation to demand and for natural mineral water, to hydrogeological characteristics. 764 addresses for premises licenced to produce packaged water from 2009-2015 were mapped and compared to regional sachet water consumption and beverage import/export data examined. We find evidence to suggest packaged water is transported shorter distances in Ghana than in developed countries. For natural mineral waters, producers should be able to address the most widespread water quality hazards (including high salinity, iron and nitrates) in aquifers used for production through reverse osmosis treatment. The study suggests there is scope to integrate beverage product and groundwater regulatory databases to support groundwater management.

Subject Areas

water footprint; bottled water; groundwater; Africa; water resource management; urban

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