REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0603.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Candida auris; Superbug fungus; biofilm; Candida albicans; nosocomial infection; Candidiasis
Online: 24 June 2021 (11:54:40 CEST)
The newly emerging nosocomial pathogen Candida auris is linked with persistent hospital-acquired infections and abrupt outbreaks across six continents. Genotypic analysis is indicative of the appearance of independent distinct clades of this particular fungus in different geographic locations simultaneously. Intrusive deep seated infections in addition to colonization have been diagnosed primarily in hospitalized patients and have drawn a lot of attention because of different antifungal susceptibility profiles and transmission despite strict preventive measures. Problems with the accurate identification of C. auris using phenotypic and molecular approaches has raised concerns about the detection of relevant levels of the problem. Candida family associated infections are a serious causative agent of mortality and morbidity in immune-compromised individuals. Candida auris are also known as superbug fungus that spreads rapidly all over the world. In 2009, shortly after the first case, various strains across the six continents have been recognized as nosocomial pathogens. Simultaneous and independent C. auris outbreaks appear to be of great concern for the healthcare settings as well as scientific community. Additionally, microbiological misidentification and multidrug resistance, rarely noticed for other non-albicans Candida species, lead to problems in obliteration and frequent treatment failures for C. auris infections. This review article aims to provide a comprehensive and up to date report on the global C. auris outbreaks, considering clinical along with microbiological characteristics, virulence mechanisms and susceptibility to antifungals, as well as the effectiveness of available preventive and therapeutic implementations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0059.v1
Subject: Keywords: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus; statistics; superbug; hormone; prevention
Online: 5 April 2019 (11:46:16 CEST)
In California, an average of 41,900 patients are diagnosed annually with Staphylococcus bacterial infection; out of these, 24,090 patients have methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and 17,810 patients have methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infection. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is a significant difference in strain dominancy and in what direction. The paper gathered and analyzed data for period of five years of infection rate due to Staphylococcus aureus. This study indicates that a significant difference in dominancy exists, the MRSA infection rate (an average of five years period) is 1.35 times higher than the MSSA infection rate (P-value < 0.05, CI: 95%), but the gap between the two infection rates is decreasing. The infection rate of both MRSA and MSSA is in a path of decline.