REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: chronic pain; nociceptive pain; neuropathic pain; nociplastic pain; psychogenic pain; neuroinflammation; kynurenine
Online: 4 June 2021 (09:09:26 CEST)
Chronic pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience that persists or recurs more than three months and may extend beyond the expected time of healing. Recently nociplastic pain has been introduced as a descriptor of mechanism of pain, which is due to disturbance of neural processing without actual or potential tissue damage, appearing to replace a concept of psychogenic pain. An interdisciplinary task force of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) compiled a systematic classification of clinical conditions associated with chronic pain, which was published in 2018 and will officially come into effect in 2022 in the 11th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11) by the World Health Organization. ICD-11 offers the option for recording the presence of psychological or social factors in chronic pain; however, cognitive, emotional, and social dimensions in the pathogenesis of chronic pain are missing. Earlier pain disorder was defined as a condition with chronic pain associated with psychological factors, but it was replaced with somatic symptom disorder with predominant pain in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) in 2013. Recently clinical nosology is trending toward highlighting neurological pathology of chronic pain, discounting psychological or social factors in the pathogenesis of pain. This review article discusses components of the pain pathway, the component-based mechanisms of pain, central and peripheral sensitization, roles of chronic inflammation, and the involvement of tryptophan-kynurenine pathway metabolites, exploring participations of psychosocial and behavioral factors in central sensitization of diseases progressing into development of chronic pain, comorbid diseases that commonly present a symptom of chronic pain, and psychiatric disorders that manifest chronic pain without obvious actual or potential tissue damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0427.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: ethyl loflazepate; idiopathic taste disorder; psychogenic taste disorder
Online: 23 November 2021 (14:49:20 CET)
Ethyl loflazepate (EL) is a benzodiazepine derivative that has been reported to activate the gustatory cortex. Our department routinely uses EL as a first-line treatment for idiopathic and psychogenic taste disorders, although little has been reported in the literature with respect to patient outcomes, so we conducted a retrospective study examining its safety and efficacy. Between 2008 and 2020, 49 patients (14 males and 35 females; mean age, 62.1 years) were diagnosed with taste disorders and received EL as their only treatment for >14 days. Severity of taste disorder was evaluated using the paper disc method by Sakai et al , and treatment efficacy was evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale, wherein patients gave subjective ratings for their symptoms (reductions by >50% after administration of EL for 4 weeks were defined as mprovements). Results showed that the improvement rates for patients with idiopathic and psychogenic taste disorders were 55% and 70%, respectively. Additionally, the majority (78%) improved within 2 weeks, and side effects were mild (seven cases of sleepiness and one case of dizziness). We conclude that EL is an appropriate first-line medication for patients with idiopathic and psychogenic taste disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0205.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Mental Health; Machine Learning; Modern Imaging Techniques; Psychogenic fever; rheumatic; Classifier
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:49:42 CEST)
Brain, the most complex object known in the universe, uses few watts of power. To mimic it a nuclear power plant will be required and this power house controls the human body, single handedly. Surprisingly, “On the left side, nothing is right and on the right side there is nothing left”. Typically, there are two lateral halves of the brain: Left hemisphere and right hemisphere working distinctly. Left hemisphere is inclined towards logic; Right hemisphere is the root cause of imagination added with critical thinking. In situations like the current pandemic, COVID-19, it is the right half which tends to dominate the processing. This gives birth to mental stress, anxiety thus, aggravating the existing medical condition. Considering this pattern, a survey was conducted in Durg district of Chhattisgarh, which is one of the most hard hit epicentre of the COVID-19 second wave in India. According to this survey, it was revealed that largely women of all age groups (10-25, 26-40, 40 above) were right brained i.e. dominance of right over left hemisphere. Being more imaginative and creative thinkers they are more likely to suffer from mental issues than males. The aim of this research is to improve the mental wellbeing of the citizens in such threatening conditions. To prevent this situation awareness is a must and some stress relieving games have also been created.