REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0184.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: pneumoparotid; systematic review; pneumoparotitis; parotid gland; etiology; intraoral pressure; Stensen’s duct
Online: 10 November 2022 (02:56:35 CET)
Pneumoparotid describes the presence of retrogradely insufflated air within the Stensen's duct and/or parotid gland. It is a rare condition with variable causative factors. This study aimed to clarify the clinical characteristics of pneumoparotid; reports in all languages were evaluated fol-lowing the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement 2020. A literature search was conducted using electronic medical databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Google Scholar, SciElo, LILIACS, and others) from 1890 to June 30, 2022. One hundred and seventy patients (mean age; 28.4 years) from 126 studies were reviewed. Common symptoms included swelling (84.7%) and pain (35.9%). Characteristic findings were crepitus in the parotid region (40%) and frothy saliva from the orifice (39.4%). Common etiologies included abnormal habits such as blowing out the cheeks (23.5%), idiopathic (20%), self-induced (15.9%), playing wind instruments such as trumpets or flutes (8.8%), and diseases inducing coughing or sneezing (8.2%). Treatments included antibiotic therapy (30%), behavioral therapy to avoid continuing causative habits (25.9%), psychiatric therapy (8.2%), and surgical procedures (8.2%). Treatment should be individualized based on the etiology. However, the etiology was not identified in 20% of patients. Further detailed data from larger samples are necessary to better understand and improve the recognition of this entity.