REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0426.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: core training; exercises; flexibility; fitness; periodization
Online: 28 October 2021 (09:44:29 CEST)
This conceptual review aimed to investigate whether "functional training" (FT) programs are different from traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs. A search for the twenty most recent papers published involving FT was performed in the PubMed/Medline database. Definition, concepts, benefits, and the exercises employed in FT programs were analyzed. The main results were: 1) there is no agreement about a universal definition for FT; 2) FT programs aim at developing the same benefits already induced by traditional strength, power, flexibility, and endurance training programs; 3) exercises employed are also the same. The inability to define FT makes differentiation difficult. Physical training programs can be easily described and classified as strength, power, flexibility, endurance, and the specific exercises employed (e.g., traditional resistance training, ballistic exercises, plyometrics and Olympic-style weightlifting, continuous and high-intensity interval training). This proper description and classification may improve communication in sports science and improve interdisciplinary integration. Aiming to avoid confusion and misconceptions, and based on the current evidence, we recommend that the terms FT, high-intensity FT, and functional fitness training no longer describe any physical training program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0078.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Functional Fitness; High intensity Functional training; Periodization; Overreaching; Muscle recovery.
Online: 6 September 2021 (07:19:09 CEST)
The study describes the acute and delayed time course of recovery following the CrossFit® Benchmark Workout Karen. Eight trained men (28.4±6.4 years; 1RM back squat 139.1±26.0 kg) undertook the Karen protocol. The protocol consists of 150 Wall Balls, aiming to hit a target 3 meters high. Countermovement jump height (CMJ), creatine kinase (CK), and perceived recovery status scale (PRS) (general, lower and upper limbs) were assessed pre, post-0h, 24h, 48h and 72h after the session. The CK concentration 24h after was higher than pre-exercise (338.4 U/L vs. 143.3 U/L; effect size: 0.74; p≤0.05). At 48h and 72h following exercise, CK concentration had returned to baseline levels. The PRS general and of the lower limbs were lower in the 24-hours post-exercise compared to pre-exercise (PRS general: 4.7 ±1.5 and 7.9 ±1.7 mmol/L; and PRS of the lower limbs: 4.0 ±2.5 and 7.9 ±0.8, respectively). The PRS general, lower, and upper limbs were reduced at 48-post exercise compared to 72-hours post-exercise scores. Our findings provide insights into the fatigue profile and recovery in acute CrossFit® and can be useful to coaches effectively design the daily session.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0173.v4
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Fourier transform; Fourier series; DTFT; DFT; generalized functions; tempered distributions; Schwartz functions; Poisson Summation Formula; discretization; periodization
Online: 21 November 2018 (11:09:28 CET)
In previous studies we used Laurent Schwartz’ theory of distributions to rigorously introduce discretizations and periodizations on tempered distributions. These results are now used in this study to derive a validity statement for four interlinking formulas. They are variants of Poisson’s Summation Formula and connect four commonly defined Fourier transforms to one another, the integral Fourier transform, the Discrete-Time Fourier Transform (DTFT), the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and the Integral Fourier transform for periodic functions—used to analyze Fourier series. We prove that under certain conditions, these four Fourier transforms become particular cases of the Fourier transform in the tempered distributions sense. We first derive four interlinking formulas from four definitions of the Fourier transform pure symbolically. Then, using our previous results, we specify three conditions for the validity of these formulas in the tempered distributions sense.