ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0115.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Indole-3-acetic acid; Bacteria; Pathways; Genomes; Metagenomes
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:59:50 CEST)
Bacterial indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), an effector molecule in microbial physiology, plays an important role in plant growth-promotion. Here, we comprehensively analyzed about 7282 prokaryotic genomes representing diverse bacterial phyla, combined with root-associated metagenomic data to unravel the distribution of tryptophan-dependent IAA synthesis pathways and to quantify the IAA synthesis-related genes in the plant root environments. We found that 82.2% of the analyzed bacterial genomes were potentially capable of synthesizing IAA from tryptophan (Trp) or intermediates. Interestingly, several phylogenetically diverse bacteria showed a preferential tendency to utilize different pathways and tryptamine and indole-3-pyruvate pathways are most prevalent in bacteria. About 45.3% of the studied genomes displayed multiple coexisting pathways, constituting complex IAA synthesis systems. Furthermore, root-associated metagenomic analyses revealed that rhizobacteria mainly synthesize IAA via IAM and tryptamine (TMP) pathways and might possess stronger IAA synthesis abilities than bacteria colonizing other environments. The obtained results refurbished our understanding of bacterial IAA synthesis pathways and provided a faster and less labor-intensive alternative to physiological screening based on genome collections. The better understanding of IAA synthesis among bacterial communities could maximize the utilization of bacterial IAA to augment the crop growth and physiological function.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0230.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: intercropping; nitrogen transfer; microbial community structure; microbial activity; DNA-SIP; high-throughput sequencing; metagenomes
Online: 15 July 2022 (09:38:10 CEST)
Intercropping systems can flexibly use resources such as sunlight, heat, water, and nutrients in time and space, improve crop yield and land utilization rates, effectively reduce continuous cropping obstacles and the occurrence of diseases and insect pests, and control the growth of weeds. Thus, intercropping is a safe and efficient ecological planting mode. The legume–cereal intercropping system is the most common planting combination. Legume crops fix nitrogen from the atmosphere through their symbiotic nitrogen fixation abilities, and the fixed nitrogen can be transferred to and utilized by cereal crops in various ways. The symbiotic nitrogen fixation efficiency of legume crops was improved by reducing the inhibition of soil nitrogen on nitrogenase activity through competitive absorption of soil nitrogen. However, the effects of nitrogen transformation and distribution in intercropping systems, and microbial community structure characteristics on nitrogen transfer need to be further explored. In this review, ⅰ) we present the transformation and distribution of nitrogen in the legume–cereal intercropping system; ⅱ) we describe the soil microbial community characteristics in intercropping systems; and ⅲ) we discuss the advantages of using modern biological molecular techniques to study soil microorganisms. We conclude that intercropping can increase the diversity of soil microorganisms, and the interaction between different plants has an important impact on the diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities. The extensive application of modern biological molecular techniques in soil microbial research and the great contribution of intercropping systems to sustainable agriculture are particularly emphasized in this review.