ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0599.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: COVID-19; mortality; socioeconomic disparity; disadvantaged groups
Online: 15 January 2021 (12:09:12 CET)
Disadvantaged groups around the world have suffered and endured higher mortality during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This contrast disparity suggests that socioeconomic and health-related factors may drive inequality in disease outcome. To identify these factors correlated with COVID-19 outcome, country aggregate data provided by the Lancet COVID-19 Commission subjected to correlation analysis. Socioeconomic and health-related variables were used to predict mortality in the top 5 most affected countries using ridge regression and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) models. Our data reveal that predictors related to demographics and social disadvantage correlate with COVID-19 mortality per million and that XGBoost performed better than ridge regression. Taken together, our findings suggest that the health consequence of the current pandemic is not just confined to indiscriminate impact of a viral infection but that these preventable effects are amplified based on pre-existing health and socioeconomic inequalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0038.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: community health psychology; primary care; disadvantaged populations; well-being; integrated care
Online: 4 January 2023 (02:13:58 CET)
Background: The importance of community health psychology in providing complex bio-psycho-social care is well-documented. We present a mixed-method study monitoring the efficacy of health psychology services in the Public Health Focused Model Program for Primary Care Development (2012-2017) in four disadvantaged micro-regions in North-East Hungary. Methods: Study 1 assessed the availability of the services using a sample of 17003 respondents. Study 2 applied a follow-up design to measure the efficacy of the health psychology services in a sample of 132 clients. In Study 3, we conducted focus group interviews to assess clients’ lived experiences. Results: More mental health issues and higher education predicted a higher probability of service use. Follow-up showed that individual and group-based psychological interventions resulted in lower depression and (marginally) higher well-being. Thematic analysis of the focus group interviews indicated that participants deemed topics like psychoeducation, a greater acceptance of psychological support, and heightened awareness of individual and community support important. Conclusions: The results of the monitoring studies demonstrate the important role health psychology services can play in primary health care in disadvantaged regions. Community health psychology can improve well-being, reduce inequality, support the population’s health awareness, and address unmet social needs in disadvantaged regions in Hungary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Self-management, type 2 diabetes, immigrants, health systems, chronic diseases, qualitative study, lifestyle change, thematic analysis, socioeconomically disadvantaged, Stockholm
Online: 19 July 2018 (00:44:34 CEST)
Studies comparing provider and patient views and experiences of self-management within primary healthcare are particularly scarce in disadvantaged settings. In this qualitative study, patient and provider perceptions of self-management were investigated in five socio-economically disadvantaged communities in Stockholm. Twelve individual interviews and three group interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interview guides included questions on perceptions of diabetes diagnosis, diabetes care services available at primary health care centers, patient and provider interactions, and self-management support. Data was analysed using thematic analysis. Two overarching themes were identified. These were characterized by inherent dilemmas representing confusions and conflicts that patients and providers experienced in their daily life or practice respectively: adopting and maintaining new routines through practical and appropriate lifestyle choices (patients); and balancing expectations and pre-conceptions of self-management (providers). Patients found it difficult to tailor information and lifestyle advice to fit their daily life. Healthcare providers recognized that patients were in need of support to change behavior, but saw themselves as inadequately equipped to deal with the different cultural and social aspects of self-management. This study highlights patient and provider dilemmas that influence the interaction and collaboration between patients and providers with respect to communication and uptake of self-management advice.