ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0895.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: turbulence; chemistry; segregation; LES
Online: 12 May 2023 (07:15:32 CEST)
Atmospheric turbulence, which produces chaotic motions in the planetary boundary layer, can inhibit mixing between fast-reacting species produced or released at different locations. This segregation process modifies the effective rate at which reactions occur between these species, and are not appropriately accounted for in coarse resolution models since these models assume complete mixing of tracers within each gridbox. Here we present a few examples of LES-based simulations applied to chemically reactive species in a forested area with high emissions of biogenic hydrocarbons, an urban area rich in anthropogenic emissions; and a maritime area with high emissions of reduced sulfur species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0514.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: sensors; earthquake DRR; monitoring; early warning; search and rescue
Online: 29 March 2023 (16:36:57 CEST)
The application of movement-detection sensors is crucial for understanding surface movement and tectonic activities. The development of modern sensors has been instrumental in earthquake monitoring, prediction, early warning, emergency commanding and communication, search and rescue, and life detection. There are numerous sensors currently being utilized in earthquake engineering and science. It is essential to review their mechanisms and working principles thoroughly. Hence, we have attempted to review the development and application of these sensors by classifying them based on the timeline of earthquakes, physical or chemical mechanisms of sensors, and location of sensor platforms. In this study, we analyzed all available sensor platforms that have been widely used in recent years, with satellites and UAVs being among the most used. The findings of our study will be useful for future earthquake response and relief efforts, as well as research aimed at reducing earthquake disaster risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0326.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: C. elegans; drug; infection; lifespan; liposome; methodology
Online: 19 December 2022 (06:47:56 CET)
Liposome-mediated delivery is a possible means to overcome several shortcomings with C. elegans as a model for identifying and testing drugs that retard aging. These include interactions between drugs and the nematodes’ bacterial food source, and failure of drugs to be taken up into nematode tissues. To explore this, we have tested liposome-mediated delivery of a range of fluorescent dyes and drugs in C. elegans. Liposome encapsulation led to enhanced effects on lifespan, using smaller quantities of compound, and enhanced uptake of three dyes into the gut lumen. However, one dye (Texas red) did not cross into nematode tissues, indicating that liposomes cannot ensure uptake of any compound. Of six compounds previously reported to extend lifespan (vitamin C, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione (GSH), trimethadione, thioflavin T (ThT) and rapamycin), this effect was reproduced for the latter four in a condition-dependent manner. For GSH and ThT, antibiotics abrogated life extension, implying a bacterially-mediated effect. With GSH, this was attributable to reduced early death from pharyngeal infection, and associated with alterations of mitochondrial morphology in a manner suggesting a possible innate immune training effect. By contrast, ThT exhibited antibiotic effects. For rapamycin, significant increases in lifespan were only seen when bacterial proliferation was prevented. These results document the utility and limitations of liposome-mediated drug delivery for C. elegans. They also show how nematode-bacteria interactions can determine the effects of compounds on C. elegans lifespan in a variety of ways.