REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0143.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Co-infection; Drug resistance; Gut microbiota; Salmonellosis; Schistosoma
Online: 7 May 2021 (12:02:03 CEST)
Antibiotic inefficacy in treating bacterial infections is largely studied in the context of developing resistance mechanisms. However, little attention has been paid to combined diseases mechanisms, interspecies pathogenesis and the resulting impact on antimicrobial treatment. This review will consider the co-infections of Salmonella and Schistosoma mansoni. It summarises the protective mechanisms that the pathophysiology of the two infections confer, which leads to an antibiotic protection phenomenon. This review will elucidate the functional characteristics of the gut microbiota in the context of these co-infections, the pathogenicity of these infections in infected mice, and the efficacy of the antibiotics used in treatment of these co-infections over time. Salmonella-Schistosoma interactions and the mechanism for antibiotic protection are not well established. However, antimicrobial drug inefficacy is an existing phenomenon in these co-infections. The treatment of schistosomiasis to ensure the efficacy of antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections should be considered in co-infected patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0166.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Epigenetics; Toxicant exposure; Maternal stress; Parental smoking; Offspring health
Online: 9 August 2022 (03:27:22 CEST)
Background: The trends in the role of the germline in epigenetic transgenerational inheritance starts with the environmental factors acting on the first generation of a gestating mother. These factors influence the developing second-generation fetus by altering gonadal development, thereby reprogramming the primordial germ cell DNA methylation and leading to consequences that would be seen along generations. Objective: Despite these epigenetic factors now surfacing, the few available studies are on animal-based experiments and to make follow up on human intergenerational trials might take decades. To this response, this study aimed to determine the influence of parental energy, toxicant exposure, age and nutrient restriction on the early life of offspring growth in Gambia. Method: The study was on population-based observational study on parental energy influence, toxicant exposure, age, and nutrient restriction on offspring growth in Gambia. Results: This study showed that parents who worked in industrial areas were more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. In addition, mothers who are exposed to oxidative stress and high temperature are more likely to have offspring with poor psychosocial skills. Mothers who consumed a high protein diet were almost three more likely to have infants with good psychosocial skills in their offspring. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between maternal stress during pregnancy and psychosocial skills of offspring. Conclusion: This study was able ascertain if maternal diet during gestation, toxicant exposure, maternal stress and parental smoking habits have influence on the early life of offspring. While the study is recommending a large sample size study to eliminate selection bias, there should be an increased level of awareness of mothers on their offspring's health and their husbands' lifestyles that might influence the adulthood health of offspring.