ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mining And Mineral Processing Keywords: Bastnaesite; Fluorite; Sodium alginate; Flotation
Online: 5 December 2023 (06:11:00 CET)
To overcome the difficulty of separating bastnaesite from fluorite through the flota-tion technique, the present study examined the suitability of sodium alginate (SA) as a depressant in the flotation process. The effect of SA on the flotation separation of bastnaesite and fluorite was evaluated using micro-flotation tests, zeta potential meas-urements, adsorption density measurements, Fourier infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The micro-flotation results showed that SA exerted a strongly detrimental effect on fluorite flotation, while slightly affecting bastnaesite flotation. The surface chemistry results revealed that the -COO- and HO- functional groups in SA coordinated with Ca2+ on the fluorite surface, which induced hydro-philicity and hindered the adsorption in the subsequent collector. However, the inter-action of SA with the bastnaesite surface was marginal and did not affect the anchor-ing of the collector on the surface of bastnaesite. Based on these results, the present study proposes a possible model for the interaction of SA on the surfaces of the two minerals, laying a foundation for the flotation separation of bastnaesite from fluorite with SA as an environmentally benign depressant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1451.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: stored brown rice; energy and nutrient value; growth performance; physiological and metabolic characteristic; meat quality; pig
Online: 21 September 2023 (04:51:49 CEST)
Long-term storage may reduce the nutritional quality of brown rice, so the present study was aimed to evaluate the nutritive values and application in pig diets. In Exp.1, 18 Landrace × Yorkshire (L × Y) barrows with initial body weight (IBW) of 25.48 ± 3.21 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments, which included corn diet, one-year stored brown rice (BR1) diet and six-year stored brown rice (BR6) diet, to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolisable energy (ME) value of stored brown rice. In Exp. 2, 24 barrows (L × Y; IBW: 22.16 ± 2.42 kg) fixed with ileal T-cannula were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, including corn diet, two stored brown rice diets and nitrogen-free diet, to evaluate the amino acid (AA) digestibility of stored brown rice. In Exp. 3 and 4, 108 crossbred weaned piglets (L × Y; IBW: 9.16 ± 0.89 kg) and 90 crossbred growing pigs (L × Y; IBW: 48.28 ± 3.51 kg) were allotted to 3 treatment diets, including control diet and two stored brown rice diets, respectively, to investigate the application of stored brown rice in weaned piglet and growing-finishing pig diets. Results showed that: 1) The DE and ME of corn and stored brown rice showed no significant differences (P > 0.05), while the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of arginine, histidine, aspartic acid, and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of arginine and histidine were higher in stored brown rice compared to corn (P < 0.05). 2) Compared with the control diet, the stored brown rice diets showed no significant effects on growth performance, nutrient apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and serum biochemical indices (P > 0.05), but decreased digestive enzymes activities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum of piglets (P < 0.05). 3) Compared with the control diet, the stored brown rice diets showed no significant effects on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality, fatty acids profiles in the longissimus dorsi muscle of growing-finishing pigs (P > 0.05). In conclusion, the brown rice stored for 6 years under good conditions has no obvious changes in available energy and nutrient values. Although it may reduce digestive enzyme activity in small intestine of the piglets, the stored brown rice showed no obvious adverse effect on growth performance and meat quality, and can be effectively used in pig diet.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0347.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: L. plantarum subsp. plantarum; ETEC K88; antimicrobial; probiotics
Online: 15 August 2020 (09:50:52 CEST)
For screening excellent lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains to inhibit Escherichia (E.) coli (ETEC) K88, inhibitory activities of more than 1100 LAB strains isolated from different materials and kept in the lab were evaluated in this study. Nine strains with inhibition zone at least 22.00 mm (including that of hole puncher 10.00 mm) and good physiological and biochemical characteristics identified by 16S DNA gene sequencing and recA gene multiple detection, were assigned to Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (5), L. fermentum (1), L. reuteri (1), W. cibaria (1) and E. faecalis (1), respectively. As investigated for their tolerance abilities and safety, only strain ZA3 possessed high hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation abilities, had high survival rate in low pH, bile salt environment and GI fluids, sensitive to ampicillin, resistant to norfloxacin and amikacin, without hemolytic activity and didn’t carry antibiotic resistance genes, exhibited broad spectrum activity against a wide range of microorganisms, and antibacterial substance may attribute to organic acids, especially lactic acid and acetic acid. The results indicated that the selected strain L. plantarum subsp. plantarum ZA3 could be considered a potential probiotic to inhibit ETEC K88 for further research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0198.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: depolymerizing enzyme; debranching enzyme; xylanase; arabinofuranosidase; feruloyl esterase; arabinoxylan; digestion; growth performance; volatile fatty acid; piglet
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:56:56 CEST)
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of xylan depolymerizing enzyme namely endo-xylanase (Xyn) combined with debranching enzymes namely arabinofuranosidase (Afd) and feruloyl esterase (FE) on digestion, growth performance and intestinal volatile fatty acid profile of piglets. The in vitro experiments were firstly conducted to examine the enzymological properties of Xyn, Afd and FE, the synergy among these enzymes, together with the effect of combination of these enzymes on digestion of piglet diet. The in vivo experiment was then implemented by allocating 270 35-d-old postweaning piglets into 3 treatment groups: control group, Xyn group and (Xyn+Afd+FE) group. Each group had 6 replicates (15 piglets/replicate). The results revealed a satisfying thermostability and pH stability of Xyn, Afd and FE. Combination of Xyn, Afd and FE had a superiority (P < 0.05) over Xyn alone and its combination with Afd or FE in promoting degradation of different bran fibers rich in arabinoxylan (Abx). Treatment with combination of Xyn, Afd and FE had advantages over Xyn alone to induce increasing trends (P < 0.10) of in vitro digestibility of dietary nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, crude ash and gross energy) and piglet growth performance (average daily gain, final body weight and feed efficiency), concurrent with a reduction (P < 0.05) of diarrhea rate and increases (P < 0.05) in cecal acetic acid, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids concentrations as well as pH value of piglets. Collectively, combination of Xyn, Afd and FE was efficient in benefiting degradation of Abx in brans, as well as improving digestion, growth performance and intestinal volatile fatty acid profile of piglets.