With the ever-increasing rate, obesity has become an epidemiological problem throughout the globe comprising about 39% of the world population as of now. Among several reasons, disruption of the gut microbial ecosystem might contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic disorders, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and other associated comorbidities. Though the mechanisms related to dysbiosis are unclear, diet might play a modulating role where different dietary approaches manipulate microbial richness and abundance as well as stability. For instance, shifting of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes ratio in the gut might have a role in association with the dietary approaches and ingestion duration. Along with altered gut microbial composition, microbial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) after ingestion of non-digestible dietary starches may have an impact on host metabolism by regulating lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation with potential associations to health and obesity. The dietary approaches like carbohydrates, fibre, protein, and/or fat diet at various arrangements can make a shift in the composition of gut microbiota if introduced for a short period. However, the unique pattern of the gut microbes usually remains the same along with the longer period of habitual diet. Though the short-term dietary intervention or circadian rhythm influences a transient change in gut microbes, other than habitual diet, the understanding related to long-term dietary change-induced permanent alterations is minimum. Alternatively, the usage of prebiotics, probiotics as well as postbiotics could be beneficial to overcome dysbiosis. This review highlights the current knowledge and the interaction between the human intestinal microbiota and diet as a modifying factor, in obesity allowing the scientists to uncover novel targets and tools to use as customized therapy.
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