ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0102.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: colorectal cancer; alternative splicing; mucins; biomarkers; precision medicine
Online: 3 June 2021 (11:30:37 CEST)
Colorectal cancer prognosis get worse with advancement of disease into metastatic stage. There is a pertinent need to develop prognostic biomarkers that can be used for personalized and precision medicine. Alternative splicing provides an insight into understanding of changes at isoform expression level which may not be evident at gene level. In this direction, we utilized our prior knowledge about significant alternatively spliced genes and chose ADAM12 and MUC4 for further characterization in a metastatic cell line model. These genes were found to be good prognostic indicators in The Cancer Genome Atlas database. We studied the gene organization and designed primers to specifically amplify a group of isoforms. Differential expression of these group of isoforms was observed in normal, primary and metastatic colorectal cancer cell lines. We further validated the results using sanger sequencing. Isoform expression was found to respond to the 5-fluorouracil treatment. RNAseq analysis of the cell lines further validated the differential expression of gene isoforms. Successful detection of ADAM12 and MUC4 in cell lysates varied according to the antibody used which may reflect differential expression of isoforms. This comprehensive study underscores the importance of studying alternatively spliced isoforms and their probable used as prognostic or predictive biomarkers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0324.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: MERS-CoV; camel; seroprevalence; transmission; ELISA; RT-qPCR; slaughterhouse
Online: 15 September 2020 (03:54:34 CEST)
Background: MERS-CoV is a zoonotic virus that have emerged in humans in 2012 and caused severe respiratory illness with mortality rate of 34.4%. Since its appearance, MERS-CoV have been reported in 27 countries and most of these cases were in Saudi Arabia. So far, dromedaries are considered to be the intermediate host and the only known source of human infection. Method: This study was designed to determine the seroprevalence and the infection rate of MERS-CoV in slaughtered food-camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A total of 171 nasal swabs along with 161 serum samples were collected during the winter; from January to April 2019. Nasal swabs were examined by Rapid test and RT-qPCR to detect MERS-CoV RNA, while serum samples were tested primarily using S1-based ELISA Kit to detect MERS-CoV (IgG) antibodies and subsequently by MERS pseudotyped viral particles (MERSpp) neutralization assay for confirmation. Genetic diversity of the positive isolates was determined based on the amplification and sequencing of the spike gene. Results: Our results showed high prevalence (38%) of MERS-CoV infection in slaughtered camels and high seropositivity (70.81%) during the time of the study. These data indicate previous and ongoing MERS-CoV infection in camels. Phylogenic analysis revealed relatively low genetic variability among our isolated samples. When these isolates were aligned against published spike sequences of MERS-CoV, deposited in global databases, there was sequence similarity of 94%. Conclusion: High seroprevalence and high genetic stability of MERS-CoV in camels indicating that camels pose a public health threat. The widespread of MERS-CoV infections in camels increases the risk of future zoonotic transmission into people with direct contact with these infected camels. This study confirms re-infections in camels, highlighting a challenge for vaccine development when it comes to protective immunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0502.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Tuberculosis; Biscoumarins; Ligand molecules; DprE1; Anti-tuberculosis activity; Molecular docking; MD Simulation; Cytotoxicity
Online: 29 March 2023 (04:21:45 CEST)
The concerning rise in emergence and prevalence of resistant strains to drugs of M. tuberculosis has ,the prompted researchers to look for new and effective treatments. With this motive, biscoumarins were identified as the lead molecules on a whole-cell-based screening of several less explored low molecular weight bioactive compounds against M. tuberculosis strains. Among the screened biscoumarins, the highest dock score derivatives were synthesized (a-h) using a programmable microwave synthesizer for better yields and reaction control. The synthesized derivatives were evaluated against H37Rv, H37Ra, M. smegmatis, an MDR surrogate model, and other bacterial strains for the structure-activity response. Assessment of the synthesized library against mycobacterial strains led to the identification of compounds (f and d) as lead anti-tuberculosis agents. Compounds (f and d) exhibited less toxicity against human cell lines. At the same time, it displayed enjoyable activity wherein MIC concentrations were observed to be 16- and 32 µg/mL against the susceptible H37Rv, and H37Ra strains of M. tuberculosis and MIC value of 128 µg/mL for M. smegmatis, respectively. For mechanistic insights and identification of drug binding targets, molecular docking and dynamic simulations were employed for a panel of 16 mycobacterial enzymes essential for mycobacterial growth and survival. These in silico studies revealed the DprE1 enzyme as a druggable target for the anti-tuberculosis activity of the selected biscoumarins derivatives. Further investigation is underway in our laboratory, leading to its development as an anti-tuberculosis drug (animal model studies).