ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0242.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: pheromones; androstenone; mouse deer; metabolic pathway; reproduction; hormones
Online: 18 October 2022 (02:44:00 CEST)
Two putative boar pheromones (Androstenone and Androstenol) were discovered in endangered mouse deer during captive breeding program. This study further examined the molecular characteristics, pheromone synthesis pathway, and the functional role of these pheromones in reproduction of mouse deer. CYP17A1 and CYB5 genes were cloned and expressed in HEK-293, COS-7 cell lines and gonads of mouse deer to investigate CYP17A1 gene’s andien-β-synthase activity towards synthesis of sex pheromones in mouse deer. An enzyme immunoassay was also developed and standardized to measure the fecal androstenone during reproductive cycles of mouse deer. Results showed that mouse deer’s CYP17A1 gene possesses andien-β-synthase activity and could transform pregnenolone into 5,16-androstadien-3β-ol. The expression of CYP17A1 gene upregulated in the testis and ovary, compared to other tissues in mouse deer. Significantly elevated pheromones and estrogens were recorded prior to delivery and postpartum estrus / mating in mouse deer. Further, there were weak correlations between fecal pheromones and estrogens/ androgens in mouse deer during breeding season. The findings suggest that the boar pheromones might play a direct role in the reproductive activities of mouse deer which might be used for breeding of mouse deer elsewhere.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0496.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Grey slender loris; Mysore slender loris; Malabar slender loris; Phylogenetics
Online: 29 March 2023 (02:37:35 CEST)
Phylogenetics is a powerful tool for understanding the evolutionary history of organisms and for informing conservation and management of species. Among the strepsirrhine primates, the slender lorises are a threatened genus of small, nocturnal animals confined to India and Sri Lanka. The grey slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus) is divided into several subspecies based on the morphological and geographical variation but not supported by molecular data. We investigated the genetic basis of taxonomic and biogeographic variation as well as the phylogenetic divergence of two subspecies of the grey slender loris in southern India: the Mysore slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus ssp. lydekkerianus) and the Malabar slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus ssp. malabaricus). We sequenced and assembled the whole mitochondrial genomes of three representative individuals from their distribution in southern India and compared them with publicly available mitogenomes of other lorises. We found that the two Indian subspecies vary by 2.09% in the COX1 and CYTB gene regions and form distinct monophyletic clades that diverged about 1.049 million years ago. Our results support the morphological classification of these two subspecies in southern India and have implications for their conservation and management in captivity and in the wild.