ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Cutting Tool Wear; Chip Color; Color Correction; Multi-sensor
Online: 19 July 2021 (10:35:22 CEST)
Often, engineers with machining experience often judge machining state and tool life according to chips’ features. Engineers' experience is digitized in this study. During the cutting process, the cutting tool coming in contact with the workpiece produces a shear zone, which causes plastic deformation and shear slip. The chips closest to the shear zone can directly show the state of the tool and workpiece when the material is SKD61. This study used chip color, vibration, and current signal integration for prediction of machining state and cutting tool life. When the cutting tool wears increased, the chip surface color changed in the following way: purpleè purple blueè blue ècyan, or even green and yellow. When the cutting tool was in the accelerating wear phase, the color change was particularly obvious. The Back-Propagation Levenberg–Marquardt (BP-LM) predictive methodology was used to compare the predictive ability of voltage, vibration signal, and chip color. The Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) for the voltage signal was 12.28%, for the vibration signal it was 11.38%, and for the chip color combined with multi-sensor characteristics it was 7.85%. The MAPE of the chip color was the smallest. Using the General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) methodology, the MAPE for the voltage signal was 10.74%, for the vibration signal 7.96%, and for the chip color combined with multi-sensor characteristics was 6.59%. The MAPE of the chip color was the smallest. Obviously, the chip color combined with multi-sensor signals provided better predictive results than the vibration signal or voltage signal alone. There is currently no research on the usefulness of monitoring chip color for tool life prediction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0583.v1
Online: 23 June 2021 (12:47:11 CEST)
The mechanical engineering requires heat treatment after rough machining to reach the mechanical strength, but the heat treatment can induce workpiece deformation, so that the workpiece cannot be reworked. In this study, the plasma was integrated with a lathe, and the on line heat treatment was performed to achieve the mechanical strength and hardness, so as to reduce the machining process and handling. However, for on line heat treatment, it is important to study the machine and plasma parameters of the lathe and plasma, and the research method is used eventually to optimize the process, reduce the machining cost and machining error. The variable factors in surface on line real-time heat treatment are revolution, feed rate and current, the objective function is the hardness of mechanical properties. In the screening experiment, the interaction of factors was discussed using full factorial experiment. The Central Composite Design was combined with the Lack-of-Fit test for optimization experiment, the R2 coefficient was used to determine whether the regression model is appropriate. The optimum parameters were derived from the contour diagram and response surface diagram. The experimental results show that the significant factors include revolution, feed rate and current, the optimum parameters include revolution 168rpm, feed rate 0.068mm/rev and current 86A. The experimental results of optimum parameters show that the surface hardness is increased from 306HLD to 806HLD, the surface hardening effect is enhanced by 163%, so the on line real-time heat treatment equipment has a best hardening effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0749.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cutting tool wear; chip color; color correction; Multi-sensor
Online: 28 April 2021 (14:16:16 CEST)
In the mold machining process, the cutting tool is worn with machining time, thereby affecting the surface accuracy, leading to poor workpiece dimensions, even fracture. At present, many studies have used multiple sensors to detect the machining conditions of cutting tool and workpiece, including indirect measurement method and direct measurement method. The indirect measurement method, which has been studied widely, mainly uses sensors to capture signals for subsequent data analysis; the direct measurement method mainly analyzes the state of cutting shear zone. Due to the cut-in of cutting tool in the machining process, the workpiece is dislocated rapidly, generating considerable amount of heat, which is transferred to the chips, inducing color change on the surface of chips. Many engineers with machining experience often judge the machining state and tool life according to the chips. The engineers' experience is digitized in this study, and indirect measuring sensors are used to predict the tool life, so as to attain the objective for smart manufacturing, the average percentage error of MAPE using single vibration and voltage eigenvalues as input features is 10%, the voltage signal characteristic values and vibration signal characteristic values are combined. Finally, the chip surface chromaticity eigenvalue is combined with signal characteristic value. The average prediction error of BP-LM method is 7.85%, the average prediction error of GRNN method is 6.59%. Therefore, when the eigenvalue of chip surface chromaticity is added to the prediction result, it can enhance the accuracy of cutting tool wear value prediction more effectively than single sensor signal characteristic value.