REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1864.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: wastewater; petroleum refinery; treatment process; physiochemical; advanced; photocatalys
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:12:19 CEST)
The treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) is of great interest in the field of industrial wastewater management. The wastewater contains a diverse concentration of contaminants such as oil and grease, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenol, ammonia, sulfides, as well as other organic and inorganic composites etc. The treatment of refinery wastewater has been treated through various processes including; physical, biological, chemical or hybrid methods which combine two or more techniques. Hence, the objective of this review is to summarize the recent research studies applied in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using conventional, advanced as well as integrated treatment techniques. Furthermore, critically highlight the efficiencies and major limitations of each technique as well as prospects for improvement. Several conventional treatment techniques (basically, the physicochemical and biological processes) were discussed. In this context, advanced oxidation processes (AoPs) especially electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis as well as the integrated/hybrid processes are found effective to remove the recalcitrant fraction of organic pollutants because of their various inherent mechanisms. These techniques could effectively remove COD and phenols concentration with an average removal efficiency exceeding 90%. Hence, the review also presented an elaborate discussion of the photocatalytic process as one of the advanced techniques and highlighted some basic concepts to optimize the degradation efficiency of a photocatalyst. Finally, a brief recommendation for research prospects is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Coproporphyrin; Oatps; Mrp; Endogenous biomarker; Modeling and Simulation
Online: 5 September 2023 (03:40:58 CEST)
Coproporphyrins I and III (CP-I and CP-III) are established as substrates of hepatic sinusoidal organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps), multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (Mrp3), and canalicular transporter Mrp2. We aimed to evaluate the potential of plasma CP-I and CP-III concentrations to indicate functional changes in hepatic transporters in nonalcoholic stea-tohepatitis (NASH) rodent models using modeling and simulation approach. Mechanistic copro-porphyrins (CP-I and CP-III) models in rats and mice were constructed based on metabolism, transport, and elimination pathways in rodents. To parameterize the rat mechanistic model, we measured CP concentrations in plasma, liver, bile, and urine in healthy control Sprague Dawley rats. The mouse mechanistic model was parameterized using published data. The rat and mouse CP models described the steady-state levels of CP-I and CP-III in plasma, liver, and bile. The model recapitulated the observed high plasma CP-III / CP-1 ratio (9- and 3-fold in rats and mice, respec-tively) and elimination pathways of CP-I (>90% via biliary secretion) and CP-III (equal via bile and urine). Rat CP model was further validated with the published rat fistula model. The simulated increased plasma CP-I concentrations (4-fold), resulted from decreased Oatp activity (0.6-fold) and increased Mrp3 activity (3-fold) were comparable to those observed in bile-duct ligated NASH model. Sensitivity analysis revealed that 90% inhibition of Oatp and Mrp2 leads to a 4-fold and 2.5-fold increase in plasma CP-I levels, respectively. Additionally, we demonstrated the utility of the mechanistic CP models in testing hypothesis and understanding the mechanisms of the ob-served plasma CPs disposition in the Oatp knockout (KO) mice, bile-duct ligation NASH mice, and Mrp2 deficient TR- rats. Collectively, using a mechanistic model, we conclude that CP-I is a robust and predictable marker for assessing change in the activity of Oatps and Mrps in animal models. Our analysis suggests that efflux transporters (Mrp2 and Mrp3) can play an important role in the disposition of CP-I along with Oatp transporters in rodents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1120.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: heterosis; heterobeltiosis; combining ability; half-diallel; correlation; grain yield; physiological traits; wheat
Online: 16 August 2023 (07:21:15 CEST)
To utilize heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and its attributing traits along with three physiological traits viz., leaf area index, chlorophyll fluorescence and chlorophyll content in bread wheat (Tritium aestivum L.) the crosses were attempted during rabi, 2019-20 in a half diallel mating scheme among 8 wheat varieties and the study was carried out during rabi, 2020-21 at Block No. D-13 field of Mahua block, Simradha research farm, Rani Lakshmi Bai Central Agricultural University, Jhansi. Analysis of variance showed significant differences for treatments. Based on per se performance the hybrids NW 5054 x PBW 723 (23.3 g), and HI 1544 x NIAW 34 (23.14 g), were identified for the higher grain yield. The hybrid HI 544 x NIAW 34 (18.41 %) was identified as the best heterotic cross for grain yield per plant and its component traits. The hybrids HI 1544 x NIAW 34 (3.40) and HI 1544 x GW 322 (2.76), as well as the parents HD 3086 (21.85) and PBW 723 (20.68), were identified as superior economic hybrids and parents based on SCA/GCA effects, per se performance for grain yield per plant, and its component trait in bread wheat. Days to heading, flag leaf length, biological yield per plant, harvest index, number of grains per spike, 1000 grain weight, spike length, leaf area index, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content were all positively correlated with grain yield per plant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0030.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: Quantum Computing; Software Security; Quantum Algorithm; Quantum Security.
Online: 5 October 2022 (09:52:43 CEST)
The development of quantum computers seeks software developers' attention regarding security in the era of Information Technology, software security is the primary goal for our quantitative assessment of software security in the development cycle of software. Security assessment of software is identifying the key security factors of the software. A security elective provides ex-tensive strategies and calculations to ensure product safety. The security assessment is the key factor in surveying, administering, and controlling security to further enhance the nature of safety. It should be acknowledged that assessing security early on in the development process is beneficial in identifying worms, hazards, flaws, and threats. The definition and portrayal of Quantum Computing (QC) in software security will be discussed in this study. Researchers use cryptography calculations to secure our financial institutions, medical devices, military weaponry, planes, ships, vehicles, and pilots. Here authors of this study use the Fuzzy Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Situation (FTOPSIS) to quantitatively assess the weight/rank of the quantum enable security alternatives like (Diffie-Hellman key-exchange algorithm, Quantum key distribution algorithm, Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm, Special Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm, Grover’s Algorithm and Quantum key distribution algorithm in GHZ state) with security factors like (Confidentiality, Integrity, Authenti-cation, Privacy, Reliability, Maintainability, Authorization, Integrity, Possessions, and Availability). Additionally, they critically analyze and select the six alternatives of quantum-based security algorithms. The nature of safety infers the ability to execute a thing on time in this exploration study, specifically 'software security'.