ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0566.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: remote sensing; evapotranspiration; CWSI; thermal images; almond; pistachio
Online: 24 October 2018 (10:45:22 CEST)
In California, water is a perennial concern. As competition for water resources increases due to growth in population, California’s tree nut farmers are committed to improving the efficiency of water used for food production. There is an imminent need to have reliable methods that provide information about the temporal and spatial variability of crop water requirements, which allow farmers to make irrigation decisions at field scale. This study focuses on estimating the actual evapotranspiration and crop coefficients of an almond and pistachio orchard located in Central Valley (California) during an entire growing season by combining a simple crop evapotranspiration model with remote sensing data. A dataset of the vegetation index NDVI derived from Landsat-8 was used to facilitate the estimation of the basal crop coefficient (Kcb), or potential crop water use. The soil water evaporation coefficient (Ke) was measured from microlysimeters. The water stress coefficient (Ks) was derived from airborne remotely sensed canopy thermal-based methods, using seasonal regressions between the crop water stress index (CWSI) and stem water potential (Ystem). These regressions were statistically-significant for both crops, indicating clear seasonal differences in pistachios, but not in almonds. In almonds, the estimated maximum Kcb values ranged between 1.05 to 0.90, while for pistachios, it ranged between 0.89 to 0.80. The model indicated a difference of 97 mm in transpiration over the season between both crops. Soil evaporation accounted for an average of 16% and 13% of the total actual evapotranspiration for almonds and pistachios, respectively. Verification of the model-based daily crop evapotranspiration estimates was done using eddy-covariance and surface renewal data collected in the same orchards, yielding an r2 >= 0.7 and average root mean square errors (RMSE) of 0.74 and 0.91 mm day-1 for almond and pistachio, respectively. It is concluded that the combination of crop evapotranspiration models with remotely-sensed data is helpful for upscaling irrigation information from plant to field scale and thus may be used by farmers for making day-to-day irrigation management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0204.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: pistachio; cashew; allergens; DIC processing; pressure processing; thermal processing
Online: 26 March 2020 (13:41:00 CET)
Pistachio and cashew contain allergenic proteins, which causes them to be removed from the diet of allergic people. Former evidences have demonstrated that food processing (thermal and non-thermal) can produce structural and/or conformational changes in proteins by altering their allergenic capacity. In this study, the influence of Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) on the pistachio and cashew allergenic capacity has been studied. Western blot was carried out using IgG anti-11S and anti-2S and IgE antibodies from sera of patients sensitized to pistachio and cashew. DIC processing causes changes in the electrophoretic pattern, reducing the number and intensity of protein bands, as the pressure and temperature treatment increment what results in a remarkable decrease of detection of potentially allergenic proteins. The harshest conditions of DIC (7bar, 120s) markedly reduce the immunodetection of allergenic proteins, not only by using IgG (anti 11S and anti 2S) but also when IgE sera from sensitized patients were used for Western blots. Such immunodetection is more affected in pistachio than in cashew nuts, but it not completely removed. Therefore, cashew proteins are possibly more resistant than pistachio proteins. According these findings, Instant Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) can be considered a suitable technique in order to obtain hypoallergenic tree nuts flour to be used in food industry.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Almond; Persian walnut; Pistachio; Hazelnut; Pecan; Chestnut; grafting; graft compatibility
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:52:06 CEST)
The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and in the prevention of various diseases, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice use in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock–scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests and of the possible increase of their aggressiveness. They will also have to offer the premises of economic production, respectively yield and the quality, according to multiple destinations of nuts in the current consumption and food industry, but also the increasing exigencies of the consumer market and the profile industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0369.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: pistachio; cashew; peanut; hazelnut; almond; chestnut; allergen; pressure processing; thermal processing
Online: 30 January 2020 (12:55:27 CET)
Tree nuts confer many health benefits because of their high content of vitamins and antioxidants and they are increasingly consumed in the last the years. Food processing is an important industrial tool to modify allergenic properties of foods, in addition to ensure safety and to enhance organoleptic characteristics. The effect of high pressure, without and with heating, on SDS-PAGE and immunodetection profile of potential allergenic proteins (anti-11S, anti-2S and anti-LTP) of pistachio, cashew, peanut, hazelnut, almond and chestnut was investigated. Processing based on heat and /or pressure and Ultra high pressure (HHP, 300-600 MPa) without heating was applied. After treating the six tree nuts with pressure combined with heat a progressive diminution of proteins with potential allergenic properties was observed. Moreover, some tree nuts proteins (pistachio, cashew and peanut) seemed to be more resistant to technological processing than others (hazelnut and chestnut). Differences among tree nut varieties were found regarding to protein content, SDS and immunoblotting profile. High pressure combined with heating processing markedly reduce tree nut allergenic potential as the pressure and treatment time increases. HHP do not alter hazelnut and almond immunoreactivity