ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0281.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: diffractive lens; imaging; Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm; holography; incoherent imaging; telescope; photolithography; computational imaging
Online: 15 November 2022 (07:52:16 CET)
Direct imaging systems that create an image of an object directly on the sensor in a single step are prone to many constraints as a perfect image is required to be recorded within this step. In designing high resolution direct imaging systems with a diffractive lens, the outermost zone width either reaches the lithography limit or the diffraction limit itself imposing challenges in fabrication. However, if the imaging mode is switched to an indirect one consisting of multiple steps to complete imaging, then different possibilities open up. One such methods is the widely used indirect imaging method with Golay configuration telescopes. In this study, a Golay-like configuration has been adapted to realize a large area diffractive lens with three sub-aperture diffractive lenses. The sub-aperture diffractive lenses are not required to collect light and focus them to a single point as in a direct imaging system but to focus independently on different points within the sensor area. This approach of Large Area Diffractive lens with Integrated Sub-Apertures (LADISA) relaxes the fabrication constraints and allows the sub-aperture diffractive elements to have a larger outermost zone width and smaller area. The diffractive sub-apertures were manufactured using photolithography. The fabricated diffractive element has been implemented in indirect imaging mode using non-linear reconstruction and Lucy-Richardson-Rosen algorithm with synthesized point spread functions. The computational optical experiments revealed an improved optical and computational imaging resolutions compared to previous studies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0399.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Holography; computational imaging; non-linear reconstruction; Fresnel incoherent correlation holography; coded aperture imaging; rotating point spread function; diffractive optics; scattering.
Online: 30 May 2022 (11:37:04 CEST)
Indirect imaging methods involve at least two steps, namely optical recording, and computational reconstruction. The optical recording process uses an optical modulator that transforms the light from the object into a typical intensity distribution. This distribution is numerically processed to reconstruct the object’s image corresponding to different spatial and spectral dimensions. There have been numerous optical modulation functions and reconstruction methods developed in the past years for different applications. In most cases, a compatible pair of optical modulation function and reconstruction method gives optimal performance. A new reconstruction method termed non-linear reconstruction (NLR) was developed in 2017 to reconstruct the object image in the case of optical scattering modulators. During the years, it was revealed that the NLR could reconstruct an object’s image modulated by an axicons, bifocal lenses and even exotic spiral diffractive elements, which generate deterministic optical fields. Apparently, NLR seems to be a universal reconstruction method for indirect imaging. In this review, the performance of NLR has been investigated for many deterministic and stochastic optical fields. Simulation and experimental results for different cases are presented and discussed.