ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0520.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Phytoene, Dunaliella salina, mitosis inhibitors, herbicides, red light
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:18:55 CEST)
Phytoene is a colourless natural carotenoid that absorbs UV light and provides antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as protection against photodamage. It is therefore valued for its skin health and aesthetic benefits by the cosmetic industry, as well as by the health food sector. The halotolerant green microalga Dunaliella salina is one of the richest sources of natural carotenoids. We have previously investigated over-production of phytoene in D. salina after cultivation with the well-characterised mitosis inhibitor, chlorpropham. In this study, 15 herbicides with different modes of action were tested for their potential to promote phytoene accumulation. All herbicides showed different levels of capabilities to support phytoene over-production in D. salina. Most significantly, the two mitosis inhibitors tested in this study, propyzamide and chlorpropham, showed similar capacities to support over-production of phytoene by D. salina cultures, as phytoene desaturase inhibitors. The cellular content of phytoene increased by over 10-fold within 48 h after treatment with the mitosis inhibitors compared to untreated cultures. Results indicate a general effect of mitosis inhibitors on phytoene accumulation in D. salina. Furthermore, red light was found to significantly enhance the phytoene yield when used in combination with effective inhibitor treatments. Red light can be applied to maximize the production of phytoene from D. salina.
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: 9-cis β-carotene; all-trans β-carotene; Dunaliella salina; red LED; blue LED; growth; light intensity; carotenoids; isomerisation
Online: 17 May 2019 (08:25:02 CEST)
Dunaliella salina is a rich source of 9-cis β-carotene, which has been identified as important in the treatment of retinal dystrophies and other diseases. We previously showed that chlorophyll absorption of red light photons in D. salina is coupled to oxygen reduction and phytoene desaturation and increases the pool size of β-carotene . Here we show for the first time that growth under red light also controls conversion of extant all-trans β-carotene to 9-cis β-carotene by β-carotene isomerases. Cells illuminated with red light from a light emitting diode (LED) during cultivation contained a higher 9-cis β-carotene content compared to cells illuminated with white or blue LED light. The 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio in red light treated cultures reached >2.5:1 within 48 hours and was independent of light intensity. Illumination using red light filters that eliminated blue wavelength light also increased the 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio. With norflurazon, a phytoene desaturase inhibitor which blocked downstream biosynthesis of β-carotene, extant all-trans β-carotene was converted to 9-cis β-carotene during growth with red light and the 9-cis/all-trans β-carotene ratio was ~2:1. With blue light under the same conditions, 9-cis β-carotene was likely destroyed at a greater rate than all-trans β-carotene (9-cis/all-trans ratio 0.5:1). Red light perception by the red light photoreceptor, phytochrome, may increase the pool size of anti-oxidant, specifically 9-cis β-carotene, both by upregulating phytoene synthase to increase the rate of biosynthesis of β-carotene and to reduce the rate of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and by upregulating β-carotene isomerases to convert extant all-trans β-carotene to 9-cis β-carotene.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Dunaliella salina; microalgae; red LED; blue LED; growth; carotenoids; plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase; photosynthesis
Online: 19 April 2019 (09:47:41 CEST)
The halotolerant photoautotrophic marine microalga Dunaliella salina is one of the richest sources of natural carotenoids. Here we investigated the effects of high intensity blue, red and white light from light emitting diodes (LED) on the production of carotenoids by strains of D. salina under nutrient sufficiency and strict temperature control favouring growth. Growth in high intensity red light was associated with carotenoid accumulation and a high rate of oxygen uptake. On transfer to blue light, a massive drop in carotenoid content was recorded along with very high rates of photo-oxidation. In high intensity blue light, growth was maintained at the same rate as in red or white light, but without carotenoid accumulation; transfer to red light stimulated a small increase in carotenoid content. The data support chlorophyll absorption of red light photons to reduce plastoquinone in photosystem II, coupled to phytoene desaturation by plastoquinol:oxygen oxidoreductase, with oxygen as electron acceptor. Partitioning of electrons between photosynthesis and carotenoid biosynthesis would depend on both red photon flux intensity and phytoene synthase upregulation by the red light photoreceptor, phytochrome. Red light control of carotenoid biosynthesis and accumulation reduces the rate of formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as increases the pool size of anti-oxidant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0156.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Dunaliella salina; new isolates; characterization; light intensity; β-carotene; carotenoids; correlations; lutein; classification
Online: 17 January 2018 (12:04:11 CET)
The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains DF15, DF17 and DF40 compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 (confirmed to be D. tertiolecta) and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil). Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40 and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular b-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of each of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in co-ordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.