ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Dielectric disc loaded; miniaturization; monopole antenna
Online: 22 March 2021 (11:20:36 CET)
This paper deals with miniaturization technique based on frequency reduction using top loaded dielectric discs. In contrast to a simple monopole, the resonant frequency of monopole loaded with two dielectric discs changes from 1.98 to 1.29 GHz, resulting 34.84% reduction in resonant frequency keeping the antenna length (36.00 mm) unaltered. It is well-known fact that dielectric material can trap the energy to be delivered from source to antenna and as a result, it is unable to radiate efficiently. Then any approach to use the dielectric material for miniaturization process must, therefore, antenna coupled in such a way that it can radiate efficiently. The dielectric disc on top of monopole creates an inductive situation in a similar way to oppositely directed wire loop compensate the capacitive effect present at monopole causes the reduction in resonant frequency. This concept is implemented without sacrificing any desired features like bandwidth, radiation characteristics and efficiency (more than 98%) and analyzed with an equivalent circuit model. Experimental results illustrate good agreement with simulation results. This monopole antenna in car can be designed for GPS system, car to car communication, GSM or CDMA operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0151.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 3D culture; multiple myeloma; STAT; bortezomib; CETSA; stattic
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:32:11 CEST)
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1-2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease.