ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0193.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation; NaCl; Pistacia vera; rootstock; salinity stress
Online: 17 October 2019 (11:53:12 CEST)
Salinity substantially affects plant growth and crop productivity worldwide. Plants adopt several biochemical mechanisms including regulation of antioxidant biosynthesis to protect themselves against the toxic effects induced by the stress. One-year-old Pistachio rootstock exhibiting different degrees of salinity tolerance were subjected to sodium chloride induced salt stress to identify genetic diversity among cultivated pistachio rootstock for their antioxidant responses, and to determine the correlation of these enzymes to salinity stress. Leaves and roots were harvested following NaCl-induced stress. Results show that a higher concentration of NaCl treatment induced oxidative stress in the leaf tissue and to a lesser extent in the roots. Both tissues showed an increase in ascorbate peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, peroxidase and malondialdehyde. Responses of antioxidant enzymes were cultivar dependent, as well as temporal and dependent on the salinity level. Linear and quadratic regression model analysis revealed significant correlation of enzyme activities to salinity treatment in both tissues. The variation in salinity tolerance reflected their capabilities in orchestrating antioxidant enzymes at the roots and harmonized across the cell membranes of the leaves. The study provides a better understanding of root and leaf coordination in regulating the antioxidant enzymes to NaCl induced oxidative stress.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0220.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Almond; Persian walnut; Pistachio; Hazelnut; Pecan; Chestnut; grafting; graft compatibility
Online: 13 September 2021 (15:52:06 CEST)
The production and consumption of nuts are increasing in the world due to strong economic returns and the nutritional value of their products. With the increasing role and importance given to nuts (i.e., walnuts, hazelnut, pistachio, pecan, almond) in a balanced and healthy diet and in the prevention of various diseases, breeding of the nuts species has also been stepped up. Most recent fruit breeding programs have focused on scion genetic improvement. However, the use of locally adapted grafted rootstocks also enhanced the productivity and quality of tree fruit crops. Grafting is an ancient horticultural practice use in nut crops to manipulate scion phenotype and productivity and overcome biotic and abiotic stresses. There are complex rootstock breeding objectives and physiological and molecular aspects of rootstock–scion interactions in nut crops. In this review, we provide an overview of these, considering the mechanisms involved in nutrient and water uptake, regulation of phytohormones, and rootstock influences on the scion molecular processes, including long-distance gene silencing and trans-grafting. Understanding the mechanisms resulting from rootstock × scion × environmental interactions will contribute to developing new rootstocks with resilience in the face of climate change, but also of the multitude of diseases and pests and of the possible increase of their aggressiveness. They will also have to offer the premises of economic production, respectively yield and the quality, according to multiple destinations of nuts in the current consumption and food industry, but also the increasing exigencies of the consumer market and the profile industry.