REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1864.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: wastewater; petroleum refinery; treatment process; physiochemical; advanced; photocatalys
Online: 29 August 2023 (04:12:19 CEST)
The treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater (PRWW) is of great interest in the field of industrial wastewater management. The wastewater contains a diverse concentration of contaminants such as oil and grease, petroleum hydrocarbons, phenol, ammonia, sulfides, as well as other organic and inorganic composites etc. The treatment of refinery wastewater has been treated through various processes including; physical, biological, chemical or hybrid methods which combine two or more techniques. Hence, the objective of this review is to summarize the recent research studies applied in the treatment of petroleum refinery wastewater using conventional, advanced as well as integrated treatment techniques. Furthermore, critically highlight the efficiencies and major limitations of each technique as well as prospects for improvement. Several conventional treatment techniques (basically, the physicochemical and biological processes) were discussed. In this context, advanced oxidation processes (AoPs) especially electrochemical oxidation and photocatalysis as well as the integrated/hybrid processes are found effective to remove the recalcitrant fraction of organic pollutants because of their various inherent mechanisms. These techniques could effectively remove COD and phenols concentration with an average removal efficiency exceeding 90%. Hence, the review also presented an elaborate discussion of the photocatalytic process as one of the advanced techniques and highlighted some basic concepts to optimize the degradation efficiency of a photocatalyst. Finally, a brief recommendation for research prospects is also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0022.v1
Online: 4 March 2019 (09:10:50 CET)
In this paper, we study the convergence of new implicit iterations dealing with n-tupled fixed point results for nonlinear contractive-like mappings on W-hyperbolic metric spaces. Herein, we demonstrate that our newly implicit iteration schemes have faster rate of convergence than implicit S-iteration process, implicit Ishikawa and Mann type iteration processes. Furthermore, a numerical simulation to improve our theoretical results is obtained.