ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0024.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; Persian medicine; ontology; knowledge-base; Mizaj; temperament; new drug discovery
Online: 3 November 2019 (17:07:50 CET)
Background: Iranian traditional medicine is a holistic school of medicine with a long prolific history. It describes numerous concepts and the relationships between them. However, no unified terminology has been proposed for the concepts of this medicine up to the present time. Considering the extensive use of concepts in the numerous textbooks written by the scholars over centuries, comprehending the totality of the terminology is obviously a very challenging task. To resolve this issue and overcome the obstacles, and code the concepts in a reusable manner, constructing an ontology of the concepts of Iranian traditional medicine seems a necessity.Methods: Makhzan al-Advieh, an encyclopedia of materia medica compiled by Mohammad Hossein Aghili Khorasani, was selected as the resource to create an ontology of Mizaj. The steps followed to accomplish this task included (1) compiling the list of classes for Mizaj; (2) arranging the classes in taxonomy; (3) determining object properties and their cardinalities; (4) specifying annotation properties including codes, labels, synonyms, and definitions for each concept; (5) reviewing the fields pertaining to Mizaj of all monographs in Makhzan al-Advieh. The ontology was created using Protégé with adherence to the principles of ontology development provided by the Open Biological and Biomedical Ontology (OBO) foundry. Results: Mizaj ontology was constructed with a final inclusion of 105 classes, three object properties, and 1078 axioms in the Iranian Traditional Medicine General Ontology database, IrGO, freely available at http://jafarilab.com/irgo/. An indented tree view and an interactive graph view using WebVOWL were used to visualize the ontology. All classes were linked to their instances in the UNaProd database to create a knowledge-base of Mizaj. Conclusion: We constructed an ontology-based knowledge base of ITM concepts of Mizaj in the domain of materia medica to help offer a shared and common understanding of this concept, enable reuse of the knowledge, and make the assumptions explicit. Extending IrGO will bridge the gap between traditional and conventional schools of medicine and help guide future research on new treatment options.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0091.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Iranian traditional medicine; alternative and complementary medicine; database; natural products; Mizaj; temperament
Online: 8 May 2019 (10:08:54 CEST)
As a holistic medical school, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) considers the human body as a dynamic and intricate network of interconnecting processes. Currently, systems biology and more precisely systems medicine and pharmacology can be an aid in providing rationalizations for many traditional medications and treatments and elucidating a great deal of knowledge they can offer to guide future research in medicine. Therefore, re-organization and standardization of traditional medicine data are requested more than ever before. To address this issue, we have constructed UNaProd, a Universal Natural Product database for materia medica of ITM. Primarily based on Makhzan al-Advieh, which is the most recent encyclopedia of materia medica in ITM with the largest number of monographs, this database was created using both text mining methods and manual editing. UNaProd is currently hosting to 2696 monographs from herbal to animal to mineral compounds in 16 diverse attributes such as origin and scientific name. In the current version, UNaProd is hyperlinked to IrGO and CMAUP databases for Mizaj and molecular features respectively and it is freely available at http://jafarilab.com/unaprod/.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0003.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Vitamin D, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, Validity, Reliability
Online: 1 February 2017 (16:39:41 CET)
The aim of this study was to develop a valid and reliable questionnaire to assess vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) in Iranian adults who may be at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency. This study was conducted on 527 subjects, aged ≥20 years from Public health care centers in Tehran, Iran. Based on results of literature review and in-depth interviews, the 38-item vitamin D-related KAP questionnaire with four subscale was developed: 1) general knowledge; 2) nutritional knowledge; 3) attitudes; 4) behaviors. Validity of the developed vitamin D-KAP questionnaire was assessed, utilizing face, content, and construct validity methods. Internal consistency was calculated to assess reliability of the current developed questionnaire. A total of 572 (54.1% female) adults, aged 30.2±7.9 years, participated in the study. All items were perceived as relevant and comprehendible by participants. Content validity was confirmed by the panel of experts. The internal consistency, as measured by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients, exceeded the minimum reliability standard of 0.60 for four subscales. The EFA suggested a four-factor construct and the results of the CFA indicated acceptable fit indices for the proposed model. No ceiling effects were observed except for general knowledge (1.2%). Floor effects detected were 0, 1.1, 2.4, and 8.7% for practice, attitude, general knowledge, and nutrition knowledge, respectively. General knowledge had the highest score (79.59±14.52) and nutrition knowledge, the lowest score (42.58±20.40) among the four sub-scales. Results confirm the initial validity and reliability of the vitamin D-related knowledge, attitude and practice questionnaire. Further investigations in different urban and rural population are recommended.