COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0090.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Orphan crops; polyunsaturated fatty acids; α-linolenic acid; food security; traditional crops; oilseeds
Online: 6 May 2021 (14:53:18 CEST)
Plukenetia volubilis is an underutilized oilseed crop native to the Amazon basin, where it has been utilised by humans since Incan times. The large seeds contain approx. 45–50 % lipid, of which approx. 35.2–50.8 % is α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ω-3) and approx. 33.4–41.0 % is linoleic acid (C18:2 n-6, ω-6), the two essential fatty acids required by humans. The seeds also contain 22–30 % protein and have antioxidant properties. Due to its excellent nutritional composition and good agronomic properties, it has attracted increasing attention in recent years, and cultivation is expanding. When considering current global challenges, a reformation of our food systems is imperative in order to ensure food security, mitigation of climate change, and alleviation of malnutrition. For this purpose, underutilized crops may be essential tools, which can provide agricultural hardiness and reduced need for external inputs, climate resilience, diet diversification, and improved income opportunities for smallholders. Plukenetia volubilis is a promising up and coming crop in this regard and has considerable potential for further domestication; it has an exceptional oil composition, good sensory acceptability, is well suited for cultivation, and has numerous potential applications in, e.g. gastronomy, medicine, and cosmetics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0363.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: leguminous root crop; high quality protein; dry matter yield
Online: 19 November 2021 (14:45:52 CET)
Among the many neglected underutilized species, tuberous Andean root crops like the ahipas (Pachyrhizus ahipa) constitute a promising alternative for increasing diversity in nutrient sources and food security at a regional level. In this study, we present the content of some functional compounds in tuberous roots from several ahipa accessions and the progenies of the interspecific hybrid X207 (P. ahipa × P. tuberosus). A significant objective was to determine protein and free amino acids in the roots to evaluate their food quality as protein supply. The interspecific hybrids have been found to possess the root quality to provide the crop with a higher dry matter content. The high dry matter content of the P. tuberosus Chuin materials is retained in the root quality of the hybrids. Food functional components like carbohydrates, organic acids, and proteins were determined in several ahipa accessions and a stable (non-segregating) progeny of the interspecific hybrid, X207. The X207 roots showed a significantly higher dry matter content and a lower content in soluble sugars, but no significant differences were found in starch content or organic acids compared to the ahipa accessions. About the root mineral contents, Fe and Mn concentrations in X207 were significantly raised compared to the average of ahipa accessions. Among the ahipa and the hybrid, no prominent differences in protein content or protein amino acids were found, being both partially defective in providing sufficient daily intake of some essential amino acids. Root weight, a central component of root yield, was significantly higher in X207, but thorough field studies are required to substantiate the hybrid’s superior yield performance..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0396.v1
Online: 26 October 2021 (17:31:55 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), domesticated in the Amazonian region of South America, presents an important diversity in Ecuador, where it is a main staple food; however, only few Ecuadorian cassava accessions have been included in international molecular assessments. The purpose of this study was to apply suitable cassava mi-crosatellites to characterize the genetic variability of the Ecuadorian cassava collection composed mainly of local landraces from the Coast, Andes and Amazonia regions. The use of microsatellite markers allowed the determination of the genetic diversity of the collection. Seven selected SSR primers, permitted to identify homozygous and hetero-zygous materials within the cassava collection of 133 accessions. The loci presented an average genetic diversity value of 0.7 and an average PIC value of 0.67, which is con-sidered high. Low number of duplicates (8.8%) were identified in the Ecuadorian col-lection which is not fully duplicated at CIAT. Currently, a wide range of cassava diver-sity is still cultivated in multi-crop agro-ecosystem, mainly in the Coast and Amazo-nian regions. Especially in the Amazonian region, due to important cultural uses of cassava by local ethnic communities, more in depth studies in the region could unveil the genetic diversity present in situ today.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0393.v1
Online: 23 December 2021 (12:25:14 CET)
The peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is recognized as one of the most important legume crops globally for its use in human food; it is widely distributed and cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cryopreservation of five peanut varieties conserved in the INIAP Germplasm Bank, testing cryopreservation methods, evaluating the germination percentage of whole seeds and embryonic shoots. Subsequently, two quantitative variables, shoot length and root, were evaluated. The average germination percentage of varieties and treatments was higher when embryonic axes were isolated with 99.31% than 86.06% seeds. The best germination percentage of the five varieties for seeds and embryonic shoots was obtained by the Peruvian variety with 88.13% and 92.50%. The best treatments by variety for the germination of whole seeds and embryonic axes were obtained by the treatment (desiccation and NL) for whole seeds (GS2) with 95.42% and embryonic axes with 92.83%. Ageing and cryopreservation treatments positively affected germination and seedling vigor in whole seeds and embryonic axes. The two quantitative variables, shoot and root length showed variability between the five varieties; significant differences were observed between the four treatments evaluated for whole seeds and embryonic axes. The three treatments for whole seeds (GS1, GS2 GS3) and the non-cryopreserved control treatment (GSC), as well as the treatments for embryonic axes (GEA1, GEA2 GEA3) and the non-cryopreserved control treatment (GEAC), obtained good survival. They germinate whole seeds and embryonic axes with sprout development (aerial part) and root formation. With the most effective treatments for whole seeds (GS2) and embryonic axes (GEA2), the cryopreservation of the national peanut collection of the INIAP Germplasm Bank could be started.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0422.v1
Online: 19 July 2021 (15:59:12 CEST)
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a crop of nutritional and economic importance worldwide, cultivated in more than 100 tropical and subtropical countries including Ecuador, traditionally cultivated in its three continental regions: the Amazon, the Coast and in the valleys of the Sierra. The purpose of this study was to characterize 195 accessions from INIAP's Ecuadorian cassava collection through 1) morphological characterization with qualitative and quantitative descriptors; and 2) ecogeographic characterization to know the climatic, geophysical and edaphic conditions in which cassava grows and which environments are frequent or marginal for its cultivation. For the morphological characterization, 27 morphological descriptors were used (18 qualitative and nine quantitative), and for the ecogeographic characterization, 55 variables (41 climatic, two geophysical and 12 edaphic). As a result, four morphological groups and three ecogeographic groups were identified. In the research, morphological variability was evidenced, mainly in descriptors related to the leaf, stems and inflorescences. In addition, it was possible to identify accessions that can adapt to extreme conditions of drought and poor soils, which could be used for improvement.