ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0201.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Serum Creatinine; Serum Sodium; Ejection Fraction; Creatinine Phosphokinase; Multicollinearity; Matthew Correlation coefficient.
Online: 8 June 2021 (09:19:02 CEST)
Around the world, every year, about 17 million people death cause happen due to CardioVascular Diseases (CVD). As per clinical records, primarily sufferers exhibit myocardial infarctions and Heart Failures (HF). Creatinine is a Musculo - skeletal waste product. The kidneys filter creatinine from the blood and excrete it through the urine in a healthy body. High creatinine levels can suggest renal problems. Elevated Serum Creatinine (SC) has been well established in the HF. Patients’ electronic medical records can be used to quantify symptoms and other related clinical laboratory test values, which would then be utilized to direct biostatistics exploration to uncover patterns and associations that doctors would otherwise miss. The latest American Heart Association guidelines for 1500 mg/d sodium tend to be sufficiently relevant for patients with stage A and B with HF. In this article, we used a dataset of the year 2015 of heart patients records of 299 patients. The present paper used the data analytic and statistical tools to verify the significant differences between alive and dead patients’ SC and Serum Sodium (SS). It also demonstrates the impact of significant features on abnormal SC and SS on the Survival-Status levels. The Age-Group feature, which is derived from age attribute and, Ejection Fraction (EF), anemia, platelets, Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK), Blood-Pressure (BP), gender, diabetes, and smoking-status were utilized to determine the potential contributing features to mortality with Cox regression model. The Kaplan Meier plot was used to investigate the overall pattern of survival concerning age-group. During pre-processing of the dataset, Age and SS were removed due to multicollinear features during performing machine learning algorithms experiments. This paper also predicted patients’ survival, age group, and gender using supervised machine learning classifiers. Detection of significant features would help in making informed decisions to balance the lifestyle of heart patients. The author revealed that the patient’s follow-up months, as well as SC, EF, CPK, and platelets, are sufficient key features to predict heart patient survival using Random Forest (RF) stratified 10-fold CV method with accuracy (96%) with 5% Standard Deviation (SD) from medical records dataset. We identified the age-group and gender of the patient, and the RF model outperformed others with the best accuracy 96% and 94% in both cases having 11% SD. Also, prominent features such as CPK, SC, follow-up month, platelets, and ejection were found to be significant factors in predicting the patient’s age-group. Smoking habits, CPK, platelets, follow-up month, and SC of each patient were discovered to be significant predictors of patient gender. The hypothetical study proved that SC and SS making substantial differences in the survival of patients (p < 0.05) and failed to reject that anemia, diabetes, and BP making a significant impact on the creatinine and sodium of each patient (p > 0.05). With χ2(1) = 8.565, the Kaplan Meier plot revealed that mortality was high in the extremely elder age-group. The finding has possible effects on clinical practice and becomes a new medical support system when predicting whether a patient can survive a heart attack or not. The doctor should primarily concentrate on follow-up month, SC and EF, CPK, and platelet count since the aim is to understand whether a patient survives after HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0094.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart scheduling; Smart Reservations; Reinforcement Learning; Electric vehicle charging; Electric Vehicle Charging Management platform; DQN Reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 7 March 2022 (09:20:13 CET)
Abstract: As the policies and regulations currently in place concentrate on environmental protection and greenhouse gas reduction, we are steadily witnessing a shift in the transportation industry towards electromobility. There are, though, several issues that need to be addressed to encourage the adoption of EVs at a larger scale. To this end, we propose a solution capable of addressing multiple EV charging scheduling issues, such as congestion management, scheduling a charging station in advance, and allowing EV drivers to plan optimized long trips using their EVs. The smart charging scheduling system we propose considers a variety of factors such as battery charge level, trip distance, nearby charging stations, other appointments, and average speed. Given the scarcity of data sets required to train the Reinforcement Learning algorithms, the novelty of the recommended solution lies in the scenario simulator, which generates the labelled datasets needed to train the algorithm. Based on the generated scenarios, we created and trained a neural network that uses a history of previous situations to identify the optimal charging station and time interval for recharging. The results are promising and for future work we are planning to train the DQN model using real-world data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0119.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: smart scheduling; smart reservations; reinforcement learning; electric vehicle charging; electric vehicle charging management platform; neural network; DQN reinforcement Learning algorithm
Online: 8 March 2022 (08:54:48 CET)
The widespread adoption of electromobility constitutes one of the measures designed to reduce air pollution caused by traditional fossil fuels. However, several factors are currently impending this process, ranging from insufficient charging infrastructure, battery capacity, long queueing and charging time, to psychological factors. On top of range anxiety, the frustration of the EV drivers is further fueled by the lack the uncertainty of finding an available charging point on their route. To address this issue, we propose a solution that comes to bypass the limitations of the Reserve now function of the OCPP standard, enabling drivers to make charging reservations for the upcoming days, especially when planning a longer trip. We created an algorithm that generates reservation intervals based on the charging station's reservation and transaction history. Subsequently, we ran a series of test cases that yielded promising results, with no overlapping reservations.