Preprint Article Version 1 Preserved in Portico This version is not peer-reviewed

Cardiac Diagnostic Feature and Demographic Identification Models: A Futuristic Approach for Smart Healthcare Using Machine Learning

Version 1 : Received: 6 June 2021 / Approved: 8 June 2021 / Online: 8 June 2021 (09:19:02 CEST)

A peer-reviewed article of this Preprint also exists.

Kumar, D.; Verma, C.; Dahiya, S.; Singh, P.K.; Raboaca, M.S.; Illés, Z.; Bakariya, B. Cardiac Diagnostic Feature and Demographic Identification (CDF-DI): An IoT Enabled Healthcare Framework Using Machine Learning. Sensors 2021, 21, 6584. Kumar, D.; Verma, C.; Dahiya, S.; Singh, P.K.; Raboaca, M.S.; Illés, Z.; Bakariya, B. Cardiac Diagnostic Feature and Demographic Identification (CDF-DI): An IoT Enabled Healthcare Framework Using Machine Learning. Sensors 2021, 21, 6584.

Journal reference: Sensors 2021, 21, 6584
DOI: 10.3390/s21196584


Around the world, every year, about 17 million people death cause happen due to CardioVascular Diseases (CVD). As per clinical records, primarily sufferers exhibit myocardial infarctions and Heart Failures (HF). Creatinine is a Musculo - skeletal waste product. The kidneys filter creatinine from the blood and excrete it through the urine in a healthy body. High creatinine levels can suggest renal problems. Elevated Serum Creatinine (SC) has been well established in the HF. Patients’ electronic medical records can be used to quantify symptoms and other related clinical laboratory test values, which would then be utilized to direct biostatistics exploration to uncover patterns and associations that doctors would otherwise miss. The latest American Heart Association guidelines for 1500 mg/d sodium tend to be sufficiently relevant for patients with stage A and B with HF. In this article, we used a dataset of the year 2015 of heart patients records of 299 patients. The present paper used the data analytic and statistical tools to verify the significant differences between alive and dead patients’ SC and Serum Sodium (SS). It also demonstrates the impact of significant features on abnormal SC and SS on the Survival-Status levels. The Age-Group feature, which is derived from age attribute and, Ejection Fraction (EF), anemia, platelets, Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK), Blood-Pressure (BP), gender, diabetes, and smoking-status were utilized to determine the potential contributing features to mortality with Cox regression model. The Kaplan Meier plot was used to investigate the overall pattern of survival concerning age-group. During pre-processing of the dataset, Age and SS were removed due to multicollinear features during performing machine learning algorithms experiments. This paper also predicted patients’ survival, age group, and gender using supervised machine learning classifiers. Detection of significant features would help in making informed decisions to balance the lifestyle of heart patients. The author revealed that the patient’s follow-up months, as well as SC, EF, CPK, and platelets, are sufficient key features to predict heart patient survival using Random Forest (RF) stratified 10-fold CV method with accuracy (96%) with 5% Standard Deviation (SD) from medical records dataset. We identified the age-group and gender of the patient, and the RF model outperformed others with the best accuracy 96% and 94% in both cases having 11% SD. Also, prominent features such as CPK, SC, follow-up month, platelets, and ejection were found to be significant factors in predicting the patient’s age-group. Smoking habits, CPK, platelets, follow-up month, and SC of each patient were discovered to be significant predictors of patient gender. The hypothetical study proved that SC and SS making substantial differences in the survival of patients (p < 0.05) and failed to reject that anemia, diabetes, and BP making a significant impact on the creatinine and sodium of each patient (p > 0.05). With χ2(1) = 8.565, the Kaplan Meier plot revealed that mortality was high in the extremely elder age-group. The finding has possible effects on clinical practice and becomes a new medical support system when predicting whether a patient can survive a heart attack or not. The doctor should primarily concentrate on follow-up month, SC and EF, CPK, and platelet count since the aim is to understand whether a patient survives after HF.


Serum Creatinine; Serum Sodium; Ejection Fraction; Creatinine Phosphokinase; Multicollinearity; Matthew Correlation coefficient.



Comments (0)

We encourage comments and feedback from a broad range of readers. See criteria for comments and our diversity statement.

Leave a public comment
Send a private comment to the author(s)
Views 0
Downloads 0
Comments 0
Metrics 0

Notify me about updates to this article or when a peer-reviewed version is published.
We use cookies on our website to ensure you get the best experience.
Read more about our cookies here.