BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0384.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Cryptosporidium; dairy cattle; gp60; genotyping; 18S rRNA; occurrence; Cyprus
Online: 25 January 2022 (14:06:37 CET)
Cryptosporidium parvum is one of the major causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea resulting in reduced farm productivity and compromised animal welfare worldwide. Livestock act as a major reservoir of this parasite, which can be transmitted to humans directly and/or indirectly, posing a public health risk. Research reports on Cryptosporidium prevalence from the east Mediterranean region are scarce with even less originating from Cyprus. This study is the first to explore occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in young dairy calves on the island. A total of 242 faecal samples were collected from 10 dairy cattle farms in Cyprus, all of which were screened for Cryptosporidium spp. using nested-PCR amplification targeting the small subunit of the ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene. The 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene was also sequenced for the samples identified as C. parvum positive to determine the subtypes present. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium was 43.8% (106/242) with at least one positive isolate in each farm sampled. Prevalence per farm ranged from 20¬‒64%, while C. bovis, C. ryanae and C. parvum were the only species identified. Amongst those, the latter was the predominant species, representing 51.8% of all positive samples. Four zoonotic subtypes were identified – IIaA14G1R1, IIaA15G1R1, IIaA15G2R1 and IIaA18G2R1. IIaA14G1R1 was the most abundant; representing 48.2% of all C. parvum positive samples and was also the most widespread. This is the first report of zoonotic subtypes of C. parvum circulating in Cyprus. These results highlight the need for further research into the parasite focusing on its diversity, prevalence, host-range and transmission dynamics on the island.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: microcephalin gene, homozygous, next generation sequencing, microcephaly. MCPH1
Online: 2 March 2021 (16:22:48 CET)
MCPH1, otherwise known as the microcephalin gene (*607117) and protein, is a basic regulator of chromosome condensation (BCRT-BRCA1 C-terminus). The Microcephalin protein is made up of three BCRT domains and conserved tandem repeats of interacting phospho-peptide. There is a strong connection between mutations of the MCPH1 and reduced brain growth. Specifically, individuals with such mutations have underdeveloped brains which means smaller size, varying levels of mental retardation, delayed speech and poor language skills, individuals with mild microcephaly and normal intelligence notwithstanding. In this case, a fetus with novel homozygous mutation of the MCPH1 gene ((c.348del)), whose parents were recessive heterozygous for (c.348del), displayed severe microcephaly at 22 weeks of gestation. Due to the effect on splice sites in introns, this mutation causes forming of dysfunctional proteins which lack crucial domains of the C-terminus. Our findings portray an association between the new MCPH1 mutation ((c.348del)) and the clinical features of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH) contributing to a broader spectrum related to these pathologies.