ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0640.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Arthroplasty; prosthetic joint replacement; prosthetic joint infection; systemic antibiotic prophylaxis; Antibiotics; chlorhexidine gluconate; coagulase-negative staphylococci; tuf gene sequencing; staphylome; microbiome
Online: 25 November 2020 (12:56:25 CET)
The aim was to study alterations of bacterial communities in patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty to assess the impact of chlorhexidine gluconate soap decolonisation and systemic antibiotic prophylaxis. A Swedish multicentre, prospective collection of samples obtained from elective arthroplasty patients (n=83) by swabbing anterior nares, skin sites in the groin and the site of planned surgery, before and after arthroplasty surgery, was analysed by 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene sequencing and a complementary targeted tuf gene sequencing approach to comprehensively characterise alterations in staphylococcal communities. Significant reductions in alpha diversity was detected for both bacterial (p=0.04) and staphylococcal (p=0.03) groin communities after arthroplasty surgery with significant reductions in relative Corynebacterium (p=0.001) abundance and S. hominis (p=0.01) relative staphylococcal abundance. In nares, significant reductions occurred for S. hominis (p=0.02), S. haemolyticus (p=0.02), and S. pasteuri (p=0.003) relative to other staphylococci. S. aureus colonised 35% of anterior nares before and 26% after arthroplasty surgery. S. epidermidis was the most abundant staphylococcal species at all sampling sites. No bacterial genus or staphylococcal species increased significantly after arthroplasty surgery. Application of a targeted tuf gene sequencing approach provided auxiliary staphylococcal community profiles and allowed species-level characterisation directly from low biomass clinical samples.