ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0165.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicle; trajectory planning; speed planning; nonlinear optimization; nonlinear restrictions
Online: 11 February 2022 (21:08:27 CET)
This study presents the substantiation, development, and analysis of a technique for planning the autonomous vehicle (AV) motion reference parameters. The trajectory plan, speed and acceleration distributions, including other AV's kinematic parameters, are determined using sequential optimization. The study objectives are based on an analysis of the fundamental problems of AV motion planning summarized in this area's latest publications. The proposed approach combines the basic principles of the finite element method (FEM) and nonlinear optimization with nonlinear constraints. First, the generalization on representing an investigated function by finite elements (FE) is briefly described. A one-dimension FE with two nodes and three degrees of freedom (DOF) in a node was chosen as the basic one, corresponding to the 5th-degree polynomial. Next, a method for determining the motion trajectory is presented. The following are considered: formation of a restricted space for the AV's allowable maneuvering, the geometry of motion trajectory and its relation with vehicle steerability parameters, cost functions and their influences on the desirable trajectory's nature, compliance of nonlinear restrictions of the node parameters with the motion area boundaries. At the second stage, a technique for optimizing AV speed and acceleration redistribution is presented. The model considers possible combinations of cost functions, conditions of limiting the kinematic parameters with the tire slip critical speed, maximum speed level, maximum longitudinal acceleration, and critical lateral acceleration. In the simulation section, several variants of trajectories were searched and compared. Several versions of distributing the longitudinal speed and acceleration curves are determined, and their comparative analysis is fulfilled. At the end of the paper, the advantages and drawbacks of the proposed technique are noted. The conclusion is made regarding the options for improving the method in further studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0507.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: sport differential; torque vectoring; friction clutch; vehicle kinematics
Online: 26 November 2021 (12:56:38 CET)
The study is devoted to the issues of mathematical modeling and simulating the sport differential mechanism (DM) with controllable torque redistribution. The issue is caused by the elaboration of ADAS systems with the automated torque vectoring for transmissions of all-wheel-drive (AWD) vehicles and the inclusion of such devices in the combined autonomous vehicle trajectory control scheme. At the article's beginning, the use of devices for redistributing traction forces is reasoned by analyzing the curvilinear vehicle motion, where they could ensure the accuracy of vehicle steerability. The literature review highlights modern developments in the field of modeling and researching such DMs. Considering the vehicle turn with a minimum radius, the conditions corresponding to passing greater torque over the outrunning rear axle are determined. All the mechanism's components and loads acting between them are described in detail. To form an original method of mathematical description of the mechanism functioning, the system of differential equations, systems of kinematic and force connections are considered separately. The article details the mathematical approach to generalize the way for automating the equation compilation for rotational mechanical systems such as vehicle transmissions. In the simulation section, a Simulink model reflecting the functional components and calculation procedures is presented. A series of testing and simulations on the DM operation with forcible torque distribution is carried out. Modeling data are presented, and the analysis of simulation results is performed. In the completion, conclusions are made regarding the scope and use of this model and the prospects for further developing the method proposed to automate the formation of equation systems.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicles; speed planning; optimization; required passing time; two-lane highways
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:48:27 CEST)
In passing maneuvers on two-lane highways, assessing the needed distance and the potential power reserve to ensure the required speed mode of the passing vehicle is a critical task of speed planning. This task must meet several mutually exclusive conditions that lead to successful maneuver. The paper addresses three main aspects. First, the issues of rational distribution of the speed of the passing vehicle for overtaking a long commercial vehicle on two-lane highways are discussed. The factors that affect maneuver effectiveness are analyzed, considering safety and cost. Second, a heuristic algorithm is then proposed based on the rationale for choosing the necessary space and time for overtaking. The initial prediction's sensitivity to fluctuations of current measurements of the position and speed of the overtaking participants is examined. Third, an optimization technique for passing vehicle speed distribution over the overtaking time using the finite element method is presented. The adaptive model predictive control is applied for tracking the references being generated. The presented model is illustrated using simulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous vehicles; parking; path planning; space restrictions; optimization
Online: 6 April 2020 (07:26:45 CEST)
The paper presents models of path and control planning for parking, docking, and movement of autonomous vehicles at low speeds considering space constraints. Given the low speed of motion, and in order to test and approve the proposed algorithms, vehicle kinematic models are used. Recent works on the development of parking algorithms for autonomous vehicles are reviewed. Bicycle kinematic models for vehicle motion are considered for three basic types of vehicles: passenger car, long wheelbase truck, and articulated vehicles with and without steered semitrailer axes. Mathematical descriptions of systems of differential equations in matrix form and expressions for determining the linearization elements of nonlinear motion equations that increase the speed of finding the optimal solution are presented. Options are proposed for describing the interaction of vehicle overall dimensions with the space boundaries, within which a maneuver should be performed. An original algorithm that considers numerous constraints is developed for determining vehicle permissible positions within the closed boundaries of the parking area, which are directly used in the iterative process of searching for the optimal plan solution using nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC). The process of using NMPC to find the best trajectories and control laws while moving in a semi-limited space of constant curvature (turnabouts, roundabouts) are described. Simulation tests were used to validate the proposed models for both constrained and unconstrained conditions and the output (state-space) and control parameters' dependencies are shown. The proposed models represent an initial effort to model the movement of autonomous vehicles for parking and has the potential for other highway applications.