Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Cough; Signal processing; STFT; MFCC; SVM
Online: 13 January 2021 (11:09:03 CET)
Sound signals from the respiratory system are largely the harbingers of human health. Early diagnosis of respiratory tract diseases is of great importance as it creates irreversible effects on human health when delayed. This diagnostic in the medical world has been made possible thanks to machine learning and signal processing analysis. The coronavirus epidemic, which is in question today and deeply shakes the whole world, has been revealed the importance of this issue even more. In terms of the coronavirus pandemic, it has become the focus of researchers to differentiate symptoms from similar diseases such as normal flu or influenza. Among these symptoms, the difference in cough sound has played a distinctive role in the proposed study. Several pioneering studies have proven that almost two-thirds of people who get corona have a dry cough. At this stage, the information of studies based on cough constitutes the main framework of our study. On the other hand, the basis of this study is based on machine learning algorithms. Clinical data collected under the supervision of doctors in a reliable environment was used as dataset. This dataset consists of 16 subjects suspected of the coronavirus with a specific patient demographic. In this study, using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, suspected subjects were divided into two groups as negative and positive. The negative and positive labels represent the patient with non-COVID and with a COVID-19 cough respectively. Using the 3D plot or waterfall representation of the signal frequency spectrum, the salient features of the cough data are revealed. In this way, COVID-19 can be differentiated from other coughs by applying effective feature extraction and classification techniques. Power Spectral Density (PSD) based on Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT) and Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) were chosen as the efficient feature extraction method. Finally, among the classification techniques the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm, was applied to the processed signals in order to identify and classify COVID-19 cough. In terms of results evaluation, the cough of subjects with COVID-19 has obtained with 95.86% classification accuracy thanks to the RBF kernel function of SVM and the MFCC method. In other words, the diagnosis of COVID-19 coughs was obtained with 98.6% and 91.7% sensitivity and specificity measures respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cymatics, Speech recognition, Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC), Dynamic time warping (DTW), Chladni plates
Online: 7 November 2018 (13:42:22 CET)
This paper propose an original approach of achieving a Cymatics based visual perception of isolated speech commands. The idea is to smartly combine the effective speech processing and analysis methods with the phenomena of Cymatics. In this context, an effective approach for automatic isolated speech based message recognition is proposed. The incoming speech segment is enhanced by applying the appropriate pre-emphasis filtering, noise thresholding and zero alignment operations. The Mel-Frequency Cepstral coefficients (MFCCs), Delta coefficients and Delta-Delta coefficients are extracted from the enhanced speech segment. Later on, the Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) technique is employed to compare these extracted features with the reference templates. The comparison outcomes are used to make the classification decision. The classification decision is transformed into a methodical excitation. Finally, this excitation is converted into the systematic visual perceptions via the phenomenon of Cymatics. The system functionality is tested with an experimental setup and results are presented. The approach is novel and can be employed in various applications like visual art, encryption, education, archeology, architecture, integration of impaired people, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0621.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Speech Command; MFCC; Tsetlin Machine; Learning Automata; Pervasive AI; Machine Learning; Artificial Neural Network; Keyword Spotting
Online: 29 January 2021 (13:01:47 CET)
The emergence of Artificial Intelligence (AI) driven Keyword Spotting (KWS) technologies has revolutionized human to machine interaction. Yet, the challenge of end-to-end energy efficiency, memory footprint and system complexity of current Neural Network (NN) powered AI-KWS pipelines has remained ever present. This paper evaluates KWS utilizing a learning automata powered machine learning algorithm called the Tsetlin Machine (TM). Through significant reduction in parameter requirements and choosing logic over arithmetic based processing, the TM offers new opportunities for low-power KWS while maintaining high learning efficacy. In this paper we explore a TM based keyword spotting (KWS) pipeline to demonstrate low complexity with faster rate of convergence compared to NNs. Further, we investigate the scalability with increasing keywords and explore the potential for enabling low-power on-chip KWS.