ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0478.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Green Climate Funds; Readiness Grants; Adaptation; SIDS; mainstreaming; adaptive capacity
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:44:10 CEST)
The impacts of climate change are already felt across the globe, and (SIDS) are at the forefront. Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) are extremely vulnerable to climate change and adaptation is crucial, however they often lack funding or the fiscal capacity to make the necessary invest-ments and require support from climate finance instruments. The Green Climate Fund (GCF) was designed with the objective of achieving a “paradigm shift” towards low-carbon and climate resilient country-driven development pathway. Despite the amounts invested, assessing the impacts of climate finance on adaptation and adaptive capacity, particularly at the institutional level remains a challenge. Researchers identified two key components for more efficient adapta-tion policies at the national level: the degree of adaptation mainstreaming and institutional adaptive capacity. In SIDS, institutional capacity at the national level is seen as a key component to achieve the objectives of climate change strategies, and is supported by several programmes, including the Green Climate Fund Readiness Preparatory Support Programmes. However, to date few studies have analysed the linkages between climate finance, adaptation mainstreaming and adaptive institutional capacity. Through the review of the Readiness Grants and semi-structured interviews in three Caribbean SIDS, this research assess how climate finance may promote in-stitutional change through the mainstreaming of adaptation policies at the national level and contribute to more institutional adaptive capacity. It shows that the grants had a positive impact, which can be limited to by the strength of the institutions in place. These results demonstrate that access to climate finance can create a window of opportunity for countries to accelerate institu-tional change and allow to make recommendations on how to maximise the impacts adaptation funds. More in-depth studies would be needed to examine the complementary influence of the different climate finance flows (multilateral or bilateral) and their interplay with national institu-tional mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0455.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: green space; green urban agenda; green space attributes; mixed-method approach; Zurich
Online: 6 June 2023 (11:50:17 CEST)
There is an overall scientific consensus that public space and, mainly, space with a high ecological index – most notably experienced in green areas – positively affects individual and collective well-being and urban dwellers’ physical and mental health. However, the ‘reality check’ indicates difficulties in translating the assumed benefits of green space into implementable interventions in urban environments. To examine such an ‘implementation gap’ on the case of Zurich seems valid, given that the ‘green urban agenda’ debate has been embedded in numerous Swiss policies (from the federal to the municipal levels). In narrow terms, the research first focuses on Zurich’s district 9 consisting of two neighborhoods (Altstetten and Albisrieden) – the area under ongoing densification yet with a variety of green spaces, to then elucidate four green space clusters and their 400-meter catchment areas in the mentioned district. The mixed-method approach has been applied at three analytical levels: 1) documentary analysis of multi-scale national policy toolkits, to identify the critical tenets associated with the ‘green urban agenda’, 2) assessment of green spaces in Zurich’s district 9 based on online available quantitative data and on-site observation, to determine their provision, types, size and mutual connectivity, and 3) analysis of four green space clusters within the mentioned district through on-site observation, to identify green space attributes and main activities. Through critical mutual examination of the identified ‘green urban agenda’ principles in the national policies, on the one hand, and green space attributes, on the other, the research findings reveal the extent of the convergence and/or divergence between the ‘green urban agenda’ policy trends and their implementation in practice.