ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0483.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacy Keywords: Network embedding; multiplex-heterogeneous network; multi-layer network; drug repositioning; graph representation learning
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:21:02 CEST)
Drug repositioning (also called drug repurposing) is a strategy for identifying new therapeutic targets for existing drugs. This approach is of great importance in pharmacology as it is a faster and cheaper way to develop new medical treatments. In this paper, we present, to our knowledge, the first application of multiplex-heterogeneous network embedding to drug repositioning. Network embedding learns the vector representations of nodes, opening the whole machine learning toolbox for a wide variety of applications including link prediction, node labelling or clustering. So far, the application of network embedding for drug repositioning focused on heterogeneous networks. Our approach for drug repositioning is based on multiplex-heterogeneous network embedding. Such method allows the richness and complexity of multiplex and heterogeneous networks to be projected in the same vector space. In other words, multiplex-heterogeneous networks aggregate different multi-omics data in the same network representation. We validate the approach on a task of link prediction and on a case study for SARS-CoV2 drug repositioning. Experimental results show that our approach is highly robust and effective for finding new drug-target associations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: visual cortical prosthesis; brain-machine interface; electrical stimulation; prosthetic vision
Online: 23 March 2021 (10:42:30 CET)
The electrical stimulation of the visual cortices has the potential to restore vision to blind individuals. Until now, the results of visual cortical prosthetics has been limited as no prosthesis has restored a full working vision but the field has shown a renewed interest these last years thanks to wireless and technological advances. However, several scientific and technical challenges are still open in order to achieve the therapeutic benefit expected by these new devices. One of the main challenges is the electrical stimulation of the brain itself. In this review, we analyze the results in electrode-based visual cortical prosthetics from the electrical point of view. We first briefly describe what is known about the electrode-tissue interface and safety of electrical stimulation. Then we focus on the psychophysics of prosthetic vision and the state-of-the-art on the interplay between the electrical stimulation of the visual cortex and phosphene perception. Lastly, we discuss the challenges and perspectives of visual cortex electrical stimulation and electrode array design to develop the new generation implantable cortical visual prostheses.