COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0275.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: fludioxonil; fungicide; mode of action; high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway; Magnaporthe oryzae; signal transduction; histidine kinase; MoHIK1; HIK1; phenylpyrrole
Online: 12 April 2021 (09:38:33 CEST)
The group III two-component hybrid histidine kinase MoHik1p in the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae is known to be a sensor for external osmotic stress and essential for the fungicidal activity of the phenylpyrrole fludioxonil. The mode of action of fludioxonil has not yet been completely clarified but rather assumed to hyperactivate the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) signaling pathway. To date, not much is known about the detailed molecular mechanism of how osmotic stress is detected or fungicidal activity is initiated within the HOG pathway. The molecular mechanism of signaling was studied using a mutant strain in which the HisKA signaling domain was modified by an amino acid change of histidine H736 to alanine A736. We found that MoHik1pH736A is as resistant to fludioxonil but not as sensitive to osmotic stress as the null mutant ∆Mohik1. H736 is required for fludioxonil action but is not essential for sensing sorbitol stress. Consequently, this report provides evidence of the difference in the molecular mechanism of fludioxonil action and the perception of osmotic stress. This is an excellent basis to understand the successful phenylpyrrole-fungicides’ mode of action better and will give new ideas to decipher cellular signaling mechanisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0168.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cAMP signaling; quorum sensing; alternative splicing; lipid signaling; MAPK cascade; multistep phosphorelay; pheromone signaling; glucose signaling; light signaling
Online: 11 March 2022 (10:15:46 CET)
Biochemical signaling is the key mechanism to coordinate a living organism in all aspects of its life. It is still enigmatic how exactly cells and organisms deal with environmental signals and irritations precisely because of the limited number of signaling proteins and a multitude of transitions inside and outside the cell. Many components of signaling pathways are functionally pleiotropic, which means they have several functions. A single stimulus often activates multiple effectors, a distinct effector can be activated by numerous stimuli and signals triggered by different stimuli are often transduced via shared network components. This very compact and concise review sheds light on the most important molecular mechanisms of cellular signaling in fungi.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0165.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Proteomics; LC-MS/MS; phosphopeptide enrichment; bioinformatics; cellular signaling; Mag-naporthe oryzae; phosphorylation; DDA; DIA; phospho-peptidomics
Online: 9 November 2022 (02:09:17 CET)
The dynamic interplay of signaling networks in most major cellular processes is characterized by the orchestration of reversible protein phosphorylation. Consequently, analytic methods like quantitative phospho-peptidomics has been pushed forward from a highly specialized edge-technique to a powerful and versatile platform for comprehensively analyzing the phosphorylation profile of living organisms. Despite enormous progress in instrumentation and bioinformatics, a major problem remains a high number of missing values caused by the experimental procedure due to either a random phospho-peptide enrichment selectivity or borderline signal intensities, which both cause the exclusion for fragmentation using the commonly applied data dependent acquisition (DDA) mode. Consequently, an incomplete dataset reduces confidence in the subsequent statistical bioinformatic processing. Here, we successfully applied data independent acquisition (DIA) by using the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae as model organism and could prove that while maintaining data quality (such as phosphosite and peptide sequence confidence), the data completeness increases dramatically. Since the method presented here reduces the LC-MS/MS analysis from 3 h to 1 h and increases the number of phoshosites identified up to 10-fold in contrast to published studies in fungi, we pushed the phospho-proteomic technique beyond its current limits and could provide a sophisticated resource for investigation of signaling processes in filamentous fungi.