Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: triple negative breast cancer; immunotherapy; immune checkpoint therapy; radionuclide therapy
Online: 9 April 2021 (13:26:23 CEST)
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of the disease with poor clinical outcomes and limited therapeutic options. Immune checkpoint blockade (CP) has surged to the forefront of cancer therapies with widespread clinical success in a variety of cancer types. However, the percentage of TNBC patients that benefit from CP as a monotherapy is low and clinical trials have shown the need for combined therapeutic modalities. Specifically, there has been interest in combining CP therapy with radiation therapy where clinical studies primarily with external beam have suggested their therapeutic synergy, contributing to the development of anti-tumor immunity. Here, we have developed a therapeutic platform combining radionuclide therapy (RT) and immunotherapy utilizing a radiolabelled biomolecule and CP in an E0771 murine TNBC tumor model. Survival studies show that while neither monotherapy is able to improve therapeutic outcomes, the combination of RT + CP extended overall survival. Histologic analysis showed that RT + CP increased necrotic tissue within the tumor and decreased levels of F4/80+ macrophages. Flow cytometry analysis of the peripheral blood also showed that RT + CP suppressed macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressive cells, both of which actively contribute to immune escape and tumor relapse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0340.v1
Online: 18 August 2022 (10:45:51 CEST)
Numerous proteomic and transcriptomic studies have been carried out to better understand the current multi-variant SARS-CoV-2 virus mechanisms of action and effects. However, they are mostly centered on mRNAs and proteins. The effect of the virus on human post-transcriptional regulatory agents such as microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in the regulation of 60% of human gene activity remains poorly explored. Similar to what we have previously done with other viruses such as Ebola and HIV, in this study we investigated the miRNA profile of lung epithelial cells following infection with SARS-CoV-2. At the 24 and 72 hours post-infection, SARS-CoV-2 did not drastically alter the miRNome. About 90% of the miRNAs remained non-differentially expressed. The results revealed that miR-1246, miR-1290 and miR-4728-5p were the most upregulated over time. miR-196b-5p and miR-196a-5p were the most downregulated at 24 h while at 72 h, miR-3924, miR-30e-5p and miR-145-3p showed the highest level of downregulation. In the top significantly enriched KEGG pathways of genes targeted by differentially expressed miRNAs we found, among others, MAPK, RAS, P13K-Akt and renin secretion signaling pathways. By RT-qPCR, we also showed that SARS-CoV-2 may regulate several predicted host mRNA targets involved in the entry of the virus into host cells (ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17 and FURIN), in renin–angiotensin system (RAS) (Renin, Angiotensinogen, ACE), innate immune response (IL-6, IFN1β, CXCL10, SOCS4) and fundamental cellular processes (AKT, NOTCH, WNT). Finally, we demonstrated by dual luciferase assay a direct interaction between miR-1246 and ACE-2 mRNA. This study highlights the modulatory role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2.