ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0063.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: contamination; pathogens; bacteria; escherichia coli; staphylococcus aureus; hygiene; shigella; salmonella; milk processing; foodborne infection; cfu
Online: 13 November 2019 (10:37:25 CET)
Pasteurized milks are still causing food borne illness. Milk contamination can occur at any stage from its way from cow to our tables. Usually milk is pure and sterile when produced in udder of a healthy cow. Like humans, cow are reservoirs of bacteria which are harmless to humans and some cows can harbour few bacteria that are harmful to humans even though they are not harmful to the cow. Milk can be contaminated during or after milking. Also, cow feeds can be contaminated with mycotoxins such as aflatoxins produced by the fungi, Aspergillus flavus. Four types of aflatoxins are known which are; aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2. Cows comsuming feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 leads to secretion in the milk of aflatoxin M1 and M2 causing aflatoxicosis. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products is a universal problem and foodborne infections accounting for 20 million cases annually in the world have been identified as an important public health and economic problem in developed as well as developing nations. The main objective of this study was to determine milk microbial quality in Kicukiro district. The specific objectives are to identify bacteria pathogens in milk collected in Kicukiro district, to compare milk quality among sectors of Kicukiro district, to compare milk processed by industries and home-processed milk. The methodology employed in this research was cross-sectional and experimental as the study began with collection of raw data and went through laboratory analysis from July–August, 2018. The findings showed that 59.56% of the milk fell within Grade I – Grade III (< 200,000 ≤ 2,000,000 cfu/ml) and 40.42 % of the milk samples were not within the acceptable limit of total count quality as per COMESA and EAS, non-lactobacilli and fungi were present in most samples as examined through microscope and no Staphylococcus aureus was present in any sample as examined by catalase and coagulase tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0104.v1
Subject: Keywords: chemical synthesis; IC50; ED50; CC50; antimalarial resistance; sarcosine-aniline hybrid drug
Online: 10 November 2019 (10:10:15 CET)
Background: Reducing the impact of malaria is a key to achieving the sustainable development goals which are geared towards eradicating the disease. The main objective of this study was to synthesize, determine the efficacy and safety of antiplasmodial hybrid drug comprising of sarcosine and aniline derivative for management of plasmodial infections. Results: The hybrid drug was synthesized by adding thionyl chloride to sarcosine in order to form acyl chloride which was then added to aniline to form sarcosine-aniline hybrid molecule. The IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid was 44.80 ± 4.70 ng/ml compared to that of aniline derivative which was 22.86 ± 1.26 ng/ml. The IC50 of control drugs were 2.63 ± 0.38 ng/ml, 5.69 ± 0.39 ng/ml for artesunate and chloroquine respectively. There was a significant difference between IC50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and aniline derivative (P<0.05). There was also a significant difference between sarcosine-aniline hybrid and standard drugs used to treat malaria including artesunate and chloroquine (P<0.05). The ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid drug was 6.49mg/kg compared to that of aniline derivative which was 3.61mg/kg. The ED50 of control drugs were 3.56 mg/kg, 2.94mg/kg and 1.78 mg/kg for artesunate-aniline hybrid, artesunate and chloroquine respectively. There was a significant difference (P<0.05) between ED50 of sarcosine-aniline hybrid and both controls such as aniline derivative, artesunate, artesunate-aniline hybrid and chloroquine. Cytotoxicity results revealed that sarcosine-aniline hybrid was safe to vero cells with a CC50 of 50.18±3.53µg/ml. Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was significantly less toxic compared to artesunate, chloroquine and doxorubicin. Sarcosine-aniline hybrid was also safe to mice. Conclusion: Therefore, covalent bitherapy should be used in drug development for drug resistance mitigation.