ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0143.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Data assimilation; TROPOMI; Air Quality modelling; NOx Emissions; Ensemble Kalman Filter; LOTOS-EUROS; power plant; anthropogenic
Online: 4 June 2021 (12:59:09 CEST)
In this work, we investigate the ability of a data assimilation technique and space-borne observations to quantify and monitor changes in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over North-Western Greece for the summers of 2018 and 2019. In this region, four lignite-burning power plants are located. The data assimilation technique, based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter method, is employed to combine space-borne atmospheric observations from the high spatial resolution Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) and simulations using the LOTOS-EUROS Chemical Transport model. The Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service-Regional European emissions (CAMS-REG, version 4.2) inventory based on year 2015 is used as the a priori in the simulations. Surface measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from air quality stations operating in the region are compared with the model surface NO2 output using either the a priori (base run) or the a posteriori (assimilated run) NOx emissions. The high biases found between the in situ NO2 measurements and the base run surface NO2 decrease in the assimilated run in most cases. The bias in the station near the largest power plant decreases to 2.0 μg/m3 (2.83 μg/m3) from 10.5 μg/m3 (8.46 μg/m3) in 2019 (2018 respectively). Concerning the estimated annual a posteriori NOx emissions it was found that, for the pixels hosting the two largest power plants, the assimilated run results in emissions decreased by ~40-50% for 2018 compared to 2015, whereas a larger decrease, of ~70% for both power plants, was found for 2019, after assimilating the space-born observations. For the same power plants, the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) reports decreased emissions in 2018 and 2019 compared to 2015 (-35% and -38% in 2018, -62% and -72% in 2019), in good agreement with the estimated emissions. We further compare the a posteriori emissions to the reported energy production of the power plants during the summer of 2018 and 2019. Mean decreases of about -35% and-63% in NOx emissions are estimated for the two larger power plants in summer of 2018 and 2019, respectively, which are supported by similar decreases in the reported energy production of the power plants (~-30% and -70%, respectively).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0400.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: remote sensing; air-quality; S5P/TROPOMI; LOTOS-EUROS; EEA; NO2 surface concentration
Online: 23 August 2022 (11:40:33 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the surface concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) inferred from the Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (S5P/TROPOMI) NO2 tropospheric column densities over Central Europe for two time periods, the summer of 2019 and the winter of 2019-2020. Simulations of the NO2 tropospheric vertical column densities and surface concentrations from the LOng-Term Ozone Simulation – EURopean Operational Smog (LOTOS-EUROS) chemical transport model are also applied in the methodology. More than two hundred in-situ air quality monitoring stations, reporting to the European Environment Agency (EEA) air quality database, are used to carry out comparisons with the model simulations and the space-borne inferred surface concentrations. Stations are separated into seven types (urban traffic, suburban traffic, urban background, suburban background, rural background, suburban industrial and rural industrial) in order to examine the strengths and shortcomings of the different air quality markers, namely the NO2 vertical column densities and NO2 surface concentrations. S5P/TROPOMI NO2 surface concentrations are inferred by multiplying the fraction of the satellite and model NO2 vertical column densities with the model surface concentrations. The estimated inferred TROPOMI NO2 surface concentrations are examined further with the altering of three influencing factors: the model vertical levelling scheme, the versions of the TROPOMI NO2 data and the air mass factors applied to the satellite and model NO2 vertical column densities. Overall, the inferred TROPOMI NO2 surface concentrations show a better correlation with the in-situ measurements for both time periods and all station types, especially for the industrial stations (R>0.6) in winter. The calculated correlation for background stations is moderate for both periods (R~0.5 in summer and R>0.5 in winter), whereas for traffic stations it improves in the winter (from 0.20 to 0.50). After the implementation of the air mass factors from the local model, the bias is significantly reduced for most of the station types, especially in winter for the background stations, ranging from +0.49% for the urban background to +10.37% for the rural background stations. The mean relative bias in winter between the inferred S5P/TROPOMI NO2 surface concentrations and the ground-based measurements for industrial stations is about -15%, whereas for traffic urban stations it is approximately -25%. In summertime, biases are generally higher for all station types, especially for the traffic stations (~ -75%), ranging from -54% to -30% for the background and industrial stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0203.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Mediterranean; shipping emissions; CAMS-GLOB-SHIP; TROPOMI; LOTOS-EUROS; EMODnet; NOx
Online: 13 October 2021 (13:14:29 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to apply a new lane separation methodology for the maritime sector emissions attributed to the different vessel types and marine traffic loads in the Mediterranean and the Black Sea defined via the European Marine and Observation Data network (EMODnet), developed in 2016. This methodology is implemented for the first time on the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service Global Shipping (CAMS-GLOB-SHIP v2.1) nitrogen dioxide (NOX) emissions inventory, on the Sentinel-5 Precursor TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) nitrogen dioxide (NO2) tropospheric vertical column densities and on the LOTOS-EUROS (LOng Term Ozone Simulation – EURopean Operational Smog) chemical transport model simulations. By applying this new, EMODnet-based lane separation method to the CAMS-GLOB-SHIP v2.1 emission inventory, we find that cargo and tanker vessels account for approximately 80% of the total emissions in the Mediterranean, followed by fishing, passenger, and other vessel emissions with contributions of 8%, 7% and 5%, respectively. Tropospheric NO2 vertical column densities sensed by TROPOMI for 2019 and simulated by the LOTOS-EUROS CTM have been successfully attributed to the major vessel activities in the Mediterranean; the mean annual NO2 load of the observations and the simulations reported for the entire maritime EMODnet-reported fleet of the Mediterranean is in satisfactory agreement, 1.26 ± 0.56x1015 molecules cm-2 and 0.98 ± 0.41x1015 molecules cm-2, respectively. The spatial correlation of the annual maritime NO2 loads of all vessel types between observation and simulation ranges between 0.93 and 0.98. On seasonal basis, both observations and simulations show a common variability. The winter-time comparisons are in excellent agreement for the highest emitting sector, cargo vessels, with the observations reporting a mean load of 0.98 ± 0.54 and the simulations of 0.81 ± 0.45x1015 molecules cm-2 and correlation of 0.88. Similarly, the passenger sector reports 0.45 ± 0.49 and 0.39 ± 0.45x1015 molecules cm-2 respectively, with correlation of 0.95. In summertime, the simulations report a higher decrease in modelled tropospheric columns than the observations, however still resulting in a high correlation between 0.85 and 0.94 for all sectors. These encouraging findings will permit us to proceed with creating a top-down inventory for NOx shipping emissions using S5P/TROPOMI satellite observations and a data assimilation technique based on the LOTOS-EUROS chemical transport model.