REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Quantum Dot Nanoparticles; PINK1; Theranostic; mitochondria; drug delivery
Online: 1 November 2022 (14:29:26 CET)
One of the most frequent brain diseases, Alzheimer's is defined by poor cognitive function brought on by the build-up of Beta Amyloid plaques and the gradual death of neurons. Glucose metabolism and the development of amyloid plaques are being studied together. Under physiologically normal circumstances, glucose is the primary substrate for the adult human brain. The prodromal phases of AD are significantly influenced by glucose hypometabolism. Hypometabolism of glucose in the brain is a clear sign of mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergetic system impairment. By regulating energy synthesis and cell death, mitochondria play a crucial role in the functioning of cells. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are a result of mitochondrial dysfunction, which also accelerates the development of Alzheimer's disease. For the maintenance of balance, autophagy is crucial because it selectively destroys damaged mitochondria. AD affects this route for mitochondrial breakdown. Targeting specific mitochondrial ligands by interventions along this pathway might be a useful therapeutic approach. Due to a number of biological obstacles, this method has significant limitations. As a result, many nanocarriers have been created to improve drug delivery effectiveness. All potential nanotechnology-based treatments for AD have been examined in this study, with a particular emphasis on medication delivery to the mitochondria
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; cytokines; chemokines; neuroinflammation; neurotrophic factors; pathophysiology; Blood brain barrier; mild cognitive impairment; brain health; therapeutics
Online: 10 August 2021 (15:49:12 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized mainly by the gradual decay in neuronal function as a consequence of diverse degenerating events primarily including mitochondria dysfunction and cascades of neuro-immune reactions. Besides the acquired harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS), neurotoxins, and amyloid-beta (Aβ) and TAU pathologies in neurons, accumulating evidence with time underlined the roles of cytokines and growth factors in the AD pathogenesis. It may help us in evaluating the propensities and specific mechanism(s) of cytokines and factors impacting neuron upon apoptotic decline. Proinflammatory cytokines often induce inflammation in AD and AD-like pathogenesis in response to the apoptotic scenarios where some growth factors are involved in cytokinetic reactions to activate microglia and causing inflammation in AD. In this report, we comprehensively reviewed role of cytokines and chemokines in immune response to AD and neuropsychiatry. We provided insights into the neuroinflammation and the role of diverse factors including the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, APP, TAU phosphorylation, glycation end products, complement system, and the role of glial cells. Also, we discussed the pathogenic and protective role of macrophage migration inhibitory factors, choroid plexus-, neurotrophic- and hematopoietic -related growth factors in AD. We further shed light on the availability and accessibility of the cytokines across the blood-brain barrier in AD pathophysiology. Taken together, the emerging role of these factors in AD pathology emphasized the importance of building novel strategies for an effective therapeutic/neuropsychiatric management of AD in clinics.