ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0090.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Airflow restriction, Physical exercise, Respiratory Muscle Training, Endurance performance, VEGF, EPO
Online: 3 August 2021 (15:04:27 CEST)
Introduction: The Elevation Training Mask 2.0 (ETM) has been introduced as a novel tool to allow for respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise that can improve performance and hematological markers in elite and well-trained athletes. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the effect of wearing ETM while training on erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), peak oxygen consumption (VO2max), lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance in elite Kayaking girls. Methods: Thirty elite Kayaking girls (14 to 18-year-old) were equally and randomly assigned into mask, no mask, and control groups. The mask and no-mask groups completed 8 weeks of repeated sprint training, while the control group performed their routine kayaking training programs. Pre- and post-training tests included EPO, VEGF, VO2max, lactate, and 1000-m kayaking performance. Results: 1000-m time trial significantly decreased for mask (p < 0.001) and control (p = 0.035) groups, and was significantly lower in mask group than control (p = 0.014) and no mask (p = 0.009) groups. EPO did not show any significant changes for all groups. VEGF was increased significantly for mask (p = 0.04) and no mask (p = 0.014) groups. Lactate was decreased significantly for mask group (p = 0.025). VO2max increased significantly for no mask group (p = 0.021). Conclusion: Wearing the ETM while participating in 8 weeks of repeated sprint training might improve specific blood markers and endurance performance, especially anaerobic pathways. Performing repeated sprint training while wearing ETM has the potential to enhance performance in Kayak racing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0027.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: motor learning; fine motor coordination task; difficulty level; reduced feedback frequency; time pressure.
Online: 2 August 2021 (12:12:49 CEST)
Improving the acquisition and retention of a new motor skill is of great importance. The present study (i) investigated the effects of difficulty manipulation strategies (gradual difficulty), combined with different modalities of feedback (FB) frequency on performance accuracy and consistency when learning a novel fine motor coordination task, and (ii) examined relationships between novel fine motor task performance and executive function (EF), working memory (WM), and perceived difficulty (PD). Thirty-six, right-handed, novice physical education students volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were divided into three progressive difficulty groups (PDG), 100% visual FB (FB1), 50% FB (FB2), and 33% FB (FB3). Progressive difficulty was increased by the manipulation of the distance to the target; 2 m, 2.37 m, and 3.56 m. Three FB modalities were investigated (i.e.: 100% visual FB (100% FB), 50% reduced feedback condition (50% RFB), and 33% reduced feedback conditions (33% RFB)). Performance assessments were conducted following familiarization, acquisition, and retention learning phases. Two stress-conditions of dart throws were investigated (i.e.: free condition (FC) and time pressure condition (TPC)). After the learning intervention, data showed that, under the free condition, the 100% FB group had a significant improvement in accuracy during all learning phases. Under time pressure condition, for the 50% RFB and the 33% RFB group, the measured variable (accuracy and consistency) showed a significant linear improvement in performance. The association between the percentage of RFB frequencies and the task difficulty (50% group) may be a more appropriate and manageable cognitive load compared to the 33% RFB and the 100% FB group. The present findings could have practical implications for practitioners because, while strategies are clearly necessary for improving learning, the efficacy of the process appears to be essentially based on the characteristics of the learners.