ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0057.v1
Online: 4 December 2018 (10:56:33 CET)
International literature data report that the increase of infectious risk may be due to heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems contaminated by airborne pathogens. Moreover, the presence of complex rotating dehumidification wheels (RDWs) may complicate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the HVAC systems. We evaluated the efficacy of a disinfection strategy applied to the RDW of two hospitals HVAC systems. Hospitals have 4 RDW systems related to the surgical areas (SA1 and SA2) and to the intensive and sub-intensive cares (IC and sIC). Microbiological air and surfaces analysis were performed in HVAC systems, before and after the disinfection treatment. Hydrogen peroxide (12%) with silver ions (10 mg/L) was aerosolized in all the air sampling points, located close to the RDW device. After the air disinfection procedure, reductions of total microbial counts at 22°C and fungi were achieved in SA2 and IC HVAC systems. An Aspergillus fumigatus contamination (6 CFU/500L), detected in one air sample collected in the IC HVAC system, was eradicated after the disinfection. Surface samples proved a good microbiological quality. Results suggest the need of a disinfection procedure aimed to improve the microbiological quality of the complex HVAC systems, mostly in surgical and intensive care areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0356.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Deep learning; HVAC; Cabin air temperature; Driver behvaiour; NARX
Online: 25 October 2021 (13:29:38 CEST)
The vehicular technology has integrated many features in the system, which enhances the safety and comfort of the user. Among these features, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is the only feature that maintains the set cabin air temperature (CAT). The user’s command drives the set CAT, and the thermostat provides feedback to the HVAC to maintain the set CAT. The CAT is increased by extracting the heat from the engine surface produced by the fuel combustion, whereas the CAT is reduced by the known processes of the air conditioning system (ACS). Therefore, the CAT driven by the user’s command may not be optimal, and estimating the optimal CAT is still unsolved. In this work, the user was allowed to input a range for CAT instead of a single value. Optimal HVAC criteria were defined, and the CAT was estimated by performing iterative analysis in the user-selected range satisfying the criteria. The HVAC criteria were defined based on two measurable parameters: air conditioning refrigerant fluid pressure (ACRFP) and engine surface temperature (EST) empirically defined as the vector CATOP. In this article, a NARX DL model by mapping the vehicle-level vectors (VLV) to predict the CATOP in real-time using field data obtained from a 2020 Cadillac CT5 test vehicle. Utilising the DL model, CATOP for future time steps were predicted by varying the CAT in the definite range and applying HVAC criteria. Thus, an optimal set CAT was estimated, corresponding to the optimal CATOP defined by the HVAC criteria. We performed the validation of the DL model for multiple datasets using traditional statistical techniques, namely, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values, first-order derivatives (FOD), and root-mean-square error (RMSE).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: model predictive control; HVAC; climate control; flexible control technologies
Online: 7 November 2018 (06:40:45 CET)
The following paper describes an economical, multiple model predictive control (EMMPC) for an air conditioning system of a confectionery manufacturer in Germany. The application consists of a packaging hall for chocolate bars, in which a new local conveyor belt air conditioning system is used and thus the temperature and humidity limits in the hall can be significantly extended. The EMMPC calculates the optimum energy or cost humidity and temperature set points in the hall. For this purpose, time-discrete state space models and an economic objective function with which it is possible to react to flexible electricity prices in a cost-optimised manner are created. A possible future electricity price model for Germany with a flexible EEG levy was used as a flexible electricity price. The flexibility potential is determined by variable temperature and humidity limits in the hall, which are oriented towards the comfort field for easily working persons, and the building mass. The building mass of the created room model is used as a thermal energy store. Considering electricity price and weather forecasts as well as internal, production plan-dependent load forecasts, the model predictive controller directly controls the heating and cooling register and the humidifier of the air conditioning system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0133.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Energy-efficiency; HVAC system; Neural network; Cooling load; Metaheuristic search.
Online: 8 January 2021 (10:20:07 CET)
Early prediction of thermal loads plays an essential role in analyzing energy-efficient buildings' energy performance. On the other hand, stochastic algorithms have recently shown high proficiency in dealing with this issue. These are the reasons that this work is dedicated to evaluating an innovative hybrid method for predicting the cooling load (CL) in buildings with residential usage. The proposed model is a combination of artificial neural networks and stochastic fractal search (SFS-ANN). Two benchmark algorithms, namely the grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA) and firefly algorithm (FA), are also considered to be compared with the SFS. The non-linear effect of eight independent factors on the CL is analyzed using each model's optimal structure. Evaluation of the results outlined that all three metaheuristic algorithms (with more than 90 % correlation) can adequately optimize the ANN. In this regard, this tool's prediction error declined by nearly 23, 18, and 36 % by applying the GOA, FA, and SFS techniques. Also, all used accuracy criteria indicated the superiority of the SFS over the benchmark schemes. Therefore, it is inferred that utilizing the SFS along with ANN provides a reliable hybrid model for the early prediction of CL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: community microgrids; distribution optimal power flow; multiobjective optimization; thermal dynamic model; HVAC
Online: 15 September 2017 (10:14:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a Mixed Integer Conic Programming (MICP) model for community microgrids considering the network operational constraints and building thermal dynamics. The proposed multi-objective optimization model optimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost, purchasing cost, battery degradation cost, voluntary load shedding cost and the cost associated with customer discomfort due to room temperature deviation from the set point, but also several performance indices, including voltage deviation, network power loss and power factor at the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). In particular, the detailed thermal dynamic model of buildings is integrated into the distribution optimal power flow (D-OPF) model for the optimal operation. The heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can be scheduled intelligently to reduce the electricity cost while maintaining the indoor temperature in the comfort range set by customers. Numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and significant savings in electricity cost with network operational constraints satisfied.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: building simulation; office buildings; energy performance; energy modelling; HVAC; analytical modelling; statistical analysis
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:40:25 CEST)
Large office buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of energy consumption in urban districts. However, thorough assessments regarding the Nordic countries are still lacking. In this paper we analyse the largest dataset to date for a Nordic office building, by considering a case study located in Stockholm, Sweden, that is occupied by nearly a thousand employees.Distinguishing the lighting and occupants’ appliances energy use from heating and cooling, we can estimate the impact of occupancy without any schedule data. A standard frequentist analysis is compared with Bayesian inference, and the according regression formulas are listed in tables that are easy to implement into building performance simulations (BPS). Monthly as well as seasonal correlations are addressed, showing the critical importance of occupancy.A simple method, grounded on the power drain measurements aimed at generating boundary conditions for the BPS, is also introduced; it shows how, for this type of data and number of occupants, no more complexities are needed in order to obtain reliable predictions. For an average year, we overestimate the measured cumulative consumption by only 4.7%. The model can be easily generalised to a variety of datasets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0337.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system; ANFIS-PSO; ANFIS-GA; HVAC; hybrid machine learning
Online: 24 February 2020 (01:55:59 CET)
The hybridization of machine learning methods with soft computing techniques is an essential approach to improve the performance of the prediction models. Hybrid machine learning models, particularly, have gained popularity in the advancement of the high-performance control systems. Higher accuracy and better performance for prediction models of exergy destruction and energy consumption used in the control circuit of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems can be highly economical in the industrial scale to save energy. This research proposes two hybrid models of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-particle swarm optimization (ANFIS-PSO), and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system-genetic algorithm (ANFIS-GA) for HVAC. The results are further compared with the single ANFIS model. The ANFIS-PSO model with the RMSE of 0.0065, MAE of 0.0028, and R2 equal to 0.9999, with a minimum deviation of 0.0691 (KJ/s), outperforms the ANFIS-GA and single ANFIS models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: HVAC; air handling unit; energy efficiency; exergy efficiency; produced entropy; variable reference temperature; coenthalpy
Online: 5 February 2019 (10:08:03 CET)
The continuous energy transformation processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems of buildings are responsible for 36% of global final energy consumption. Tighter thermal insulation requirements for buildings have significantly reduced heat transfer losses. Unfortunately, this has little effect on energy demand for ventilation. On the basis of the First and the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the concepts of entropy and exergy are applied to the analysis of ventilation air handling unit (AHU) with a heat pump in this paper. This study aims to develop a consistent approach for this purpose, taking into account the variations of reference temperature and temperatures of working fluids. An analytical investigation on entropy generation and exergy analysis are used, when exergy is determined by calculating coenthalpies and evaluating exergy flows and their directions. The results show that each component of the AHU has its individual character of generated entropy, destroyed exergy and exergy efficiency variation. However, the evaporator of heat pump and fans have unabated quantities of exergy destruction. The exergy efficiency of AHU decreases from 45-55% to 12-15% when outdoor air temperature is within the range of –30°C…+10°C, respectively. This helps to determine conditions and components of improving the exergy efficiency of the AHU at variable real-world local climate conditions. The presented methodological approach could be used in the dynamic modelling software and contribute to a wider application of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0120.v3
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: HVAC model predictive control, demand response, EnergyPlus, particle swarm optimization (PSO), renewable energy, smart grids
Online: 10 September 2018 (10:58:25 CEST)
A new model predictive control (MPC) algorithm is used to select optimal air conditioning setpoints for a commercial office building, considering variable electricity prices, weather, occupancy and lighting. This algorithm, Cost-Comfort Particle Swarm Optimization (CCPSO), is the first to combine a realistic, smooth representation of occupants’ willingness to pay for thermal comfort with a bottom-up, non-linear model of the building and air conditioning system under control. We find that using a quadratic preference function for temperature can yield solutions that are both more comfortable and lower-cost than previous work that used a ``brick wall'' preference function with no preference for further cooling within an allowed temperature band and infinite aversion to going outside the allowed band. Using historical pricing data for a summer month in Chicago, CCPSO provided a 3\% reduction in costs vs. a ``brick-wall'' MPC approach with similar comfort and 13\% reduction in costs vs. a standard night setback strategy. CCPSO also reduced peak-hours demand by 3\% vs. the ``brick-wall'' strategy and 15\% vs. standard night-setback. At the same time, the CCPSO strategy increased off-peak energy consumption by 15\% vs. the ``brick-wall'' strategy. This may be valuable for power systems integrating large amounts of renewable power, which can otherwise become uneconomic due to saturation of demand during off-peak hours.