ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0430.v1
Online: 28 July 2022 (07:25:22 CEST)
Pharmacogenetics (PGx) aims to identify the genetic factors that determine inter-individual differences in response to drug treatment maximizing efficacy while decreasing the risk of adverse events. Estimating the prevalence of PGx variants involved in drug response, is a critical preparatory step for large-scale implementation of a personalized medicine program in a target population. Here, we profiled pharmacogenetic variation in fourteen clinically relevant genes in a representative sample set of 1,577 unrelated sequenced Sardinians -- an ancient island population that well accounts for genetic variation in Europe as a whole and, at the same time are enriched in genetic variants that are very rare elsewhere. To this end, we used PGxPOP, a PGx allele caller based on the guidelines created by the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC), to identify the main phenotypes associated with the PGx alleles most represented in Sardinians. We estimate that 99.43% of Sardinian individuals may potentially respond atypically to at least one drug, that on average each individual is expected to have an abnormal response to about 17 drugs, and that for 27 drugs the fraction of the population at risk of atypical responses to therapy is more than 40%. Finally, we highlighted 174 pharmacogenetic variants for which the minor allele frequency is at least 10% higher among Sardinians as compared to other European populations, a fact that may contribute to substantial interpopulation variability in drug response phenotypes. This study provides baseline information for further large-scale pharmacogenomic investigations in the Sardinian population and underlines the importance of the PGx characterization of diverse than European populations as Sardinians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0599.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Precision medicine; Inborn errors of metabolism; Pharmacogenomics, Ethics; Genomics; Learning healthcare; Machine learning; Computational biology
Online: 23 November 2020 (20:44:20 CET)
Genome sequencing is enabling precision medicine—tailoring treatment to the unique constellation of variants in an individual’s genome. The impact of recurrent pathogenic variants is often understood, leaving a long tail of rare genetic variants that are uncharacterized. The problem of uncharacterized rare variation is especially acute when it occurs in genes of known clinical importance with functionally consequent frequent variants and associated mechanisms. Variants of unknown significance (VUS) in these genes are discovered at a rate that outpaces current ability to classify them using databases of previous cases, experimental evaluation, and computational predictors. Clinicians are thus left without guidance about the significance of variants that may have actionable consequences. Computational prediction of the impact of rare genetic variation is increasingly becoming an important capability. In this paper, we review the technical and ethical challenges of interpreting the function of rare variants in two settings: inborn errors of metabolism in newborns, and pharmacogenomics. We propose a framework for a genomic learning healthcare system with an initial focus on early-onset treatable disease in newborns and actionable pharmacogenomics. We argue that (1) a genomic learning healthcare system must allow for continuous collection and assessment of rare variants, (2) emerging machine learning methods will enable algorithms to predict the clinical impact of rare variants on protein function, and (3) ethical considerations must inform the construction and deployment of all rare-variation triage strategies, particularly with respect to health disparities arising from unbalanced ancestry representation.