ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: decentralized access control; Internet of Things (IoT); blockchain protocol; smart contract; federated delegation; capability-based access control
Online: 3 May 2018 (13:06:09 CEST)
While the Internet of Things (IoT) technology has been widely recognized as the essential part of Smart Cities, it also brings new challenges in terms of privacy and security. Access control (AC) is among the top security concerns, which is critical in resource and information protection over IoT devices. Traditional access control approaches, like Access Control Lists (ACL), Role-based Access Control (RBAC) and Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC), are not able to provide a scalable, manageable and efficient mechanism to meet the requirements of IoT systems. Another weakness in today's AC is the centralized authorization server, which can be the performance bottleneck or the single point of failure. Inspired by the smart contract on top of a blockchain protocol, this paper proposes BlendCAC, which is a decentralized, federated capability-based AC mechanism to enable an effective protection for devices, services and information in large scale IoT systems. A federated capability-based delegation model (FCDM) is introduced to support hierarchical and multi-hop delegation. The mechanism for delegate authorization and revocation is explored. A robust identity-based capability token management strategy is proposed, which takes advantage of the smart contract for registering, propagating and revocating of the access authorization. A proof-of-concept prototype has been implemented on both resources-constrained devices (i.e., Raspberry PI node) and more powerful computing devices (i.e., laptops), and tested on a local private blockchain network. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the BlendCAC to offer a decentralized, scalable, lightweight and fine-grained AC solution for IoT systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0034.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Blockchain; Smart Contract; Point Cloud; Security; Privacy Preservation; Software-Defined Network (SND); Big Data; Assurance; Resilience.
Online: 2 November 2022 (02:18:50 CET)
The rapid development of three-dimensional (3D) acquisition technology based on 3D sensors provides a large volume of data, which is often represented in the form of point clouds. Point cloud representation can preserve the original geometric information along with associated attributes in a 3D space. Therefore, it has been widely adopted in many scene-understanding-related applications such as virtual reality (VR) and autonomous driving. However, the massive amount of point cloud data aggregated from distributed 3D sensors also poses challenges for secure data collection, management, storage, and sharing. Thanks to the characteristics of decentralization and security nature, Blockchain has a great potential to improve point cloud services and enhance security and privacy preservation. Inspired by the rationales behind Software Defined Network (SDN) technology, this paper envisions SAUSA, a blockchain-based authentication network that is capable of recording, tracking, and auditing the access, usage, and storage of 3D point cloud data sets in their life-cycle in a decentralized manner. SAUSA adopts an SDN-enabled point cloud service architecture which allows for efficient data processing and delivery to satisfy diverse Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirements. A blockchain-based authentication framework is proposed to ensure security and privacy preservation in point cloud data acquisition, storage, and analytics. Leveraging smart contracts for digitizing access control policies and point cloud data on the blockchain, data owners have full control of their 3D sensors and point clouds. In addition, anyone can verify the authenticity and integrity of point clouds in use without relying on a third party. Moreover, SAUSA integrates a decentralized storage platform to store encrypted point clouds while recording references of raw data on the distributed ledger. Such a hybrid on-chain and off-chain storage strategy not only improves robustness and availability but also ensures privacy preservation for sensitive information in point cloud applications. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tested on a physical network. The experimental evaluation validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed SAUSA solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0015.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Lightweight Blockchain; Drone Security; assurance; authentication; resilience
Online: 1 November 2022 (04:07:30 CET)
Rapid advancements in the fifth generation (5G) communication technology and mobile edge computing (MEC) paradigm lead to the proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in urban air mobility (UAM) networks, which provide intelligent services for diversified smart city scenarios. Meanwhile, the widely deployed internet of drones (IoD) in smart cities also brings up new concerns on performance, security, and privacy. The centralized framework adopted by conventional UAM networks is not adequate to handle high mobility and dynamicity. Moreover, it is necessary to ensure device authentication, data integrity, and privacy preservation in UAM networks. Thanks to characteristics of decentralization, traceability, and unalterability, Blockchain is recognized as a promising technology to enhance security and privacy for UAM networks. In this paper, we introduce LightMAN, a lightweight microchained fabric for data assurance and resilience-oriented UAM networks. LightMAN is tailored for small-scale permissioned UAV networks, in which a microchain acts as a lightweight distributed ledger for security guarantees. Thus, participants are enabled to authenticate drones and verify the genuineness of data that is sent to/from drones without relying on a third-party agency. In addition, a hybrid on-chain and off-chain storage strategy is adopted that not only improves performance (e.g,.latency and throughput) but also ensures privacy preservation for sensitive information in UAM networks. A proof-of-concept prototype is implemented and tested on a Micro Air Vehicle Link (MAVLink) simulator. The experimental evaluation validates the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed LightMAN solution.